Volume 13 (1) (2018) - 40 Years M.E.G.

Volume 13, Issue 1, September 2018, 128 pages

of the journal Hypnose – Zeitschrift für Hypnose und Hypnotherapie (Hypnose-ZHH)

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Table of Contents

  • Burkhard Peter
    40th anniversary of the M.E.G.: Is this the beginning of the midlife-crisis? – On the issues of schizotypy and lay-hypnosis
  • Dirk Revenstorf
    Digitalization: Psychotherapy on sale?
  • Bernhard Trenkle
    Reflecting 40 years of MEG from the point of view of a psychologist and economist
  • Liz Lorenz-Wallacher
    Concrete utopia: About the principle of hope, the courage to think outside the box, and the joy behind daring to try something new
  • Ulrike Halsband and Thomas Gerhard Wolf
    Functional changes in brain activity after hypnosis in patients with dental phobia
  • Pierre Janet
    Memorandum regarding various phenomena of somnambulism (1885)
  • Anthony D. Kauders
    Antisemitism and Middle-Class Emotionality. Continuity and Change in the Reception of Psychoanalysis, 1926-1930
  • Milton Erickson Award of MEG 2018 to Wilhelm Gerl


Volume 13 (2) (2018) - Trauma. Trauma. Etiologies and Treatment

Volume 13, Issue 2, October 2018, 272 pages

of the journal Hypnose – Zeitschrift für Hypnose und Hypnotherapie (Hypnose-ZHH)

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Table of Contents

  • Claudia Wilhelm-Gößling
    Overcoming the aftermath of trauma – Methods for effective traumatherapy
  • Arreed Barabasz, Marianne Barabasz, Ciara Christensen, Brian French und John G. Watkins
    Efficacy of single-session abreactive ego state therapy for combat stress injury, PTSD, and ASD
  • Burkhard Peter
    Hypnotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Type I
  • Pierre Janet
    "Les Possessions“. The case of “Marie“ (1889) as an early example of "Imagery Rescripting“ under hypnosis1)
  • Katharina Tigges-Limmer, Yvonne Winkler, Yvonne Brocks und Jan Gummert
    Prevention and treatment of psychological trauma during hearts surgery
  • Kai Fritzsche
    Borderline experiences, border crossings, resolved boundaries. From dissociation to integration by way of Ego-state therapy.
  • Miriam Gebhardt
    Crimes unspoken. The rape of German women at the end oft the Second World War.
  • Ibrahim Özkan, Maria Ott, Alexander Strecker, Johanna Oppermann, and Leonie Falke
    The own and the foreign in cross-cultural encounter - The instinctiveness of alienation
  • Burkhard Peter, Eva Böbel, Maria Hagl, Mario Richter, and Miguel Kazén
    Differences in personality styles of psychotherapists in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in relation to the applied psychotherapeutic techniques and the use of hypnosis
  • Maria Hagl
    Efficacy and effectiveness research in the field of clinical hypnosis in 2017
  • Rupert Reichart
    „The pleasant journey will certainly turn out well“. The application of hypnosis in a surgical procedure for deep brain stimulation - a case history
  • Ernil Hansen and Nina Zech
    „I make myself a fruit cocktail with a mixer“. A case report – an example of hypnotic communication during 106 interventions for Deep Brain Stimulation
  • Hansjörg Ebell
    Commentary to 2 case studies
  • Alexander von Delhaes
    Requisites of Hypnosis


Abstracts

Burkhard Peter

40th anniversary of the M.E.G.: Is this the beginning of the midlife-crisis? – On the issues of schizotypy and lay-hypnosis

Hypnose-ZHH, 2018, 13(1), 5-28

Following the account of the M.E.G.'s (board) members' achievements over the last 40 years, the low acceptance of hypnosis and hypnotherapy in science and medicine is deplored. Suggested as a possible explanation is the affinity of hypnosis to esotericism . This presumption is substantiated by means of historical evidence as well as current data, supporting a schizotypal personality style of individuals with a special interest in hypnosis. The consequential implications are presented and discussed as follows: (1) More scientific research, (2) a more diligent use of the term hypnosis or rather a more precise definition, and (3) a well-defined differentiation from lay-hypnosis.

Dirk Revenstorf

Digitalization: Psychotherapy on sale?

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(1), 29-46

Hypnosis is an access to mental processes beyond language and everyday reality. It activates internal images and mobilizes ressources in prelogical manners. This way it makes possible to resolve emotional and painful blocs. To use digital media for this purpose is more than natural these days. This includes selfhelp online programs, email comunication, realtime comunication via skype and similar media and also algorithmic presentation of virtual realities. Applications to pain trauma, depression, anxieties have been proven useful so far as well diagnostic applications. Hypnotic interventions have also been shown to be more effective when combined with virtual realities. The downside of digitalization for psychotherapy is the possible misuse of data tracking and the McDonaldisation of therapeutic interventions, which makes profesional therapist likely to become superfluous.

Bernhard Trenkle

Reflecting 40 years of MEG from the point of view of a psychologist and economist

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(1), 47-62

The MEG is one of the most successful and biggest hypnosis societies in the world. An anniversary is the occasion to analyze this success story. The analysis is including concepts from the science of general economics. The model of a market economy in worker-selfmanagement of former Yugoslavia serves as a basis to reflect the development of the MEG. On the basis of some rules and decisions of the MEG, the author discusses the thesis that it makes sense in a society to define the rules in such a way that the egoistic interests of individual members are utilized for the benefit of the society. In addition, in retrospect, members of MEG will be honored with their contributions, which have written a part of the success story.

Liz Lorenz-Wallacher

Concrete utopia: About the principle of hope, the courage to think outside the box, and the joy behind daring to try something new

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(1), 63-71

By means of the philosopher Ernst Bloch’s notion of the „concrete utopia”, this article will depict parallels to Erickson’s work, mainly regarding his image of man and the resulting mindset towards his patients and others. Historically, „concrete utopia” was Ernst Bloch’s reaction to the generalization of the Marxist utopia criticism and the associated degradation of all utopia. In return, he wanted to illustrate how valuable and important the diversity of utopia is. In that respect, Erickson was a true „concrete utopian”. How many times did he create a new spark of hope in his clients, helping them to turn abilities and possibilities, that initially seemed utopian, into concrete ones. How wonderful to see the manifestation of this spirit repeated in history and activities of the MEG.

Ulrike Halsband & Thomas Gerhard Wolf

Functional changes in brain activity after hypnosis in patients with dental phobia

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 12(1), 73-84

Many people show some kind of apprehension or anxiety when they have to go for a dental treatment. But patients with a dental phobia (DP) are suffering from a disproportional fear of (invasive) dental procedures characterized by the severity of their psychological and physiological symptoms. DP often report about a traumatic experience caused by previous dental treatments. The phobic stimulus is avoided. This makes a dental treatment difficult or even impossible. Dental hypnosis is an effective psychological intervention, which can be used adjuvant or instead of sedation or general anaesthetics, as strong medication is often associated with risks and side effects.

This is the first study to address the effects of a brief dental hypnosis on the fear processing structures of the brain in dental phobics using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 12 dental phobics (DP; mean 34.9 years) and 12 healthy controls (CO; mean 33.2 years) were scanned with a 3 T MRI whole body-scanner observing brain activity changes after a brief hypnotic invervention. An fMRI event-related design symptom provocation task applying animated audio-visual pseudorandomized strong phobic stimuli was presented in order to maximize the fearful reactions during scanning. Control videos showed the use of familiar electronic household equipment.

In DP group, main effects of fear condition were found in the left amygdala and bilaterally in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula and hippocampus (R < L). During hypnosis, DP showed a significantly reduced activation in all of these areas. Reduced neural activity patterns were also found in the control group. No amygdala activation was detected in healthy subjects in the two experimental conditions. Compared to DP, CO showed less bilateral activation in the insula and ACC in the awake condition.

Findings show that anxiety-provoking stimuli in dental practice can be effectively reduced under hypnosis. Hypnosis provides benefits to dental phobics as well as to healthy subjects. The study gives scientific evidence that hypnosis is a powerful and successful method for inhibiting the reaction of the fear circuitry structures and recall of unpleasant memory experiences.

Pierre Janet

Memorandum regarding various phenomena of somnambulism (1885)

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(1), 85-95

This is the first of eight articles Pierre Janet (1859-1947) wrote between 1885-1888, documenting his observations on a subject showing unusual phenomena while in a state of somnambulism, particularly reactions to „long-distance suggestions” or „remote hypnosis”. The present case of Madam B. is the same „Léonie“ [Leboulanger, 1837–190?] as mentioned by Ellenberger (1985, S. 485). Soon thereafter, however, Janet distanced himself from the conclusions he and others (e.g. Charles Richet and Henri-Étienne Beaunis, see their articles in next year ́s Hypnose-ZHH 2019) had drawn from this case, because he could no longer accept the lack of scientific foundation of these „paraor meta-psychological“ experiments. In his philosophical („L' Automatisme psychologique“; Janet, 1888) and later in his medical dissertation (Janet, 1894) he already didn ́t mention these „mistakes of youth“. Evrard, Pratte and Cardeña (2018) attribute this renunciation to his attempt to find a solid place in scientific orthodoxy and to win respectable academic positions at, e.g., the Collège de France and the Sorbonne university. In the USA and the Netherlands (regrettably not in Germany), Pierre Janet raised his importance to a level equal to that of Sigmund Freud. His work represents the foundation of current trauma therapy, as well as the most recent „imagery rescripting” in behavior therapy (see his case description of „Marie“ in issue 2 of this journal Hypnose-ZHH 2018). (B. Peter)

Schlüsselwörter: Pierre Janet, Léonie, Somnambulismus, Hypnose aus der Ferne

Anthony D. Kauders

Antisemitism and Middle-Class Emotionality. Continuity and Change in the Reception of Psychoanalysis, 1926-1930

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(1), 97-117

Reactions to Freud allow us to trace the way in which Germans reflected on sexuality, the unconscious, autonomy, and the self. What is more, examining the reception of Freudian psychoanalysis is tantamount to exploring the principles and ideals as well as fears and hopes of a given society. The period from 1926 to 1960 is especially revealing in this respect. Psychologists, psychiatrists, theologians, and philosophers, many of whom had once embraced positivism in the sciences, increasingly dismissed forms of thought they defined as mechanistic and materialistic. Instead, they called on Germans to espouse romantic and idealistic approaches to the psyche. In 1933, many of these commentators agreed that Weimar’s supposed “rationalism” – associated with the exaggeration of bourgeois emotional self-control – was no longer opportune. This anti-bourgeois stance was also directed against psychoanalysis. In the Third Reich, the juxtaposition between Freudian bourgeois rationality and anti-rational emotionality took on racialist connotations when psychologists pitted a Jewish psychoanalysis against a German (or “Aryan”) one. The essay will both recount these developments and uncover continuities after 1945.

Claudia Wilhelm-Gößling

Overcoming the aftermath of trauma – Methods for effective traumatherapy

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 7-35

Concepts and techniques of recent, effective traumatherapy are presented. Empirical evidence of efficacy in at least one meta-analysis with large mean effect sizes of Cohen ́s d>1 exist for (trauma-focused) cognitive behavioral therapy, exposition, EMDR and of late, also for hypnotherapy. Evidence suggests the necessity of a trauma-focused approach, that considers specific features of trauma-physiology, in order to achieve an integration of traumamemory and therefore a lasting decrease in posttraumatic symptoms. The general driving forces of psychotherapy are concomitantly valid and there is no indication that trauma patients need to be treated with additional care. Special significance is credited to those interventions that are highly transparent, impart knowledge, provide encouragement, and improve self-control, and therefore counteract the traumatic scene. In general, an individualized, goal- and resource-oriented approach is recommended. In case of childhood trauma, hypnotherapeutic techniques could counterbalance a prevalent dysfunctional and weak ego structure (according to OPD-2, Axis IV/Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual PDM-2). The hypnotherapeutic approach is illustrated by a case study, demonstrating the integration of traumatic memories, supported merely by indirect interventions that help strengthening individual resources.

Arreed Barabasz, Marianne Barabasz, Ciara Christensen, Brian French und John G. Watkins

Efficacy of single-session abreactive ego state therapy for combat stress injury, PTSD, and ASD

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 37-55

Using abreactive Ego State Therapy (EST), 36 patients meeting DSM–IV–TR and PTSD checklist (PCL) criteria were exposed to either 5–6 hours of manualized treatment or placebo in a single session. EST emphasizes repeated hypnotically activated abreactive “reliving” of the trauma experience combined with therapists’ ego strength. Both the placebo and EST treatment groups showed significant reductions in PTSD checklist scores immediately posttreatment (placebo: mean 17.34 points; EST: mean 53.11 points) but only the EST patients maintained significant treatment effect at 4-week and 16- to 18-week follow-ups. Abreactive EST appears to be an effective and durable treatment for PTSD inclusive of combat stress injury and acute stress disorder.

Burkhard Peter

Hypnotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Type I

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 57-80

Following a brief historical overview referencing clinical and research literature, this article provides a content-based rationale for the application of hypnotherapy in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, Type I). At first, the treatment’s methodology is illustrated, presenting typical hypnotherapeutic aspects, such as the experience of an “alternate reality”, the ritualized induction of hypnotic trance or the construction of a “therapeutic tertium” as a symbol for resources. Subsequently, Pierre Janet’s phase-oriented treatment model for traumatic disorders is being demonstrated. Two case studies are presented to exemplify this treatment.

Pierre Janet

"Les Possessions“. The case of “Marie“ (1889) as an early example of "Imagery Rescripting“ under hypnosis1)

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 81-88

“Marie“ is Pierre Janet's (1859-1947) second case study, demonstrating a treatment technique nowadays known under the denotation “imagery rescripting”. Today, it gains importance in schema therapy, though without the use of hypnosis or hypnotic age regression. For Janet, however, the induction of a hypnotic-somnambulist state was an integral element in the reconstruction of trauma (comparable to the first case "Lucie”2) or later cases, such as “Justine“3)). "Marie's" case is embedded in section "IX: The possession (Les Possessions) (p. 435 - 443)” of "chapter III: Various forms of psychological dissociation (Désagrégation)” in his book "Psychological Automatism" (L'Automatisme psychologique) (1889), in which he illustrates his theory on how symptoms develop. Janet's theory differs substantially from that of Sigmund Freud: Freud assumes a coherent ego (-consciousness), in which that parts that cannot be integrated are actively "repressed" under the expenditure of psychic energy. For Janet, however, the ego evolves from a synthesis of individual psychic elements that are linked (aggregated) by existing (partially inherent) psychological fortitude. If this fortitude is overburdened and/or if traumatic influences are too strong, “Désagrégation“ takes place, i.e. these contents lose their footing, they "dissociate". Thus, they are isolated from the other parts of the self, leading to a more or less "automatic" existence in the subconscious mind. Starting at age 13, "Marie" faced several traumatic experiences. While in hypnotic trance, Janet addressed these symptoms by regressing his patient to the time of their origin. He substituted (“rescripted”) her former consciousness with new content, therefore changing the underlying symptom-producing experience. In this case study’s opening as well as closing discussion, Janet emphasizes, that such symptoms or rather unconscious "psychological automatism" are easily interpreted as forms of possession (Possessions). (B. Peter; transl. C. Sheridan)

1)  Aus/from: Janet, P. (1889). L'Automatisme psychologique. Essai de psychologie expérimental sur les formes inférieures de l ́activité humaine (S. 435-443). Paris: Alcan.
2)  Janet, P. (1886). Les actes inconscients et le dédoublement de la personnalité pendant le somnambulisme provoqué. Revue Philosophique, 22(II), 577-592.
3)  Janet, P. (1894). Histoire d'une idée fixe. Revue Philosophique, 37(1), 121-168.

Katharina Tigges-Limmer, Yvonne Brocks, Yvonne Winkler, Martin Neufeld und Jan Gummert

Prevention and treatment of psychological trauma during hearts surgery

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 89-117

Some patients experience psychologically traumatizing events during heart surgery. Sources of extreme stress are the immediate risk and acute fear of death, pain, invasive therapies, operations, constant restlessness, incessant noise including device alarms, hectic care, a lack of privacy, a feeling of helplessness and the separation from loved ones. Hypnotherapeutic interventions can prevent stress reactions and can aid in treatment after their onset. Several interventions are appropriate for prevention including the ‘safe place’, the hand anchor technique for coping with fear before operations as well as the reframing of wound pain and noise. Utilisation of medical equipment can be incorporated into these interventions . Tools for treating stress disorders include ideomotor signals, the affirmation of patients’ efforts to compensate for traumatization, metaphors, dissociation in cases of stress overload and protective interventions in cases of negative suggestion. For preventing adjustment disorders in reaction to psychological trauma and for preventing repeated traumatization and the chronification of existing stress disorders, psychotherapeutic treatment with the option of hypnotherapy appears to be urgently indicated for vulnerable patients in heart surgery units.

Kai Fritzsche

Borderline experiences, border crossings, resolved boundaries. From dissociation to integration by way of Ego-state therapy.

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 119-139

The aim of Ego-state therapy, as developed by Helen and John Watkins is, to overcome boundaries. In psychotherapeutic treatment of complex trauma-related disorders, borderline experiences are inevitable. We are confronted with limits. However, we do not merely encounter dissociative boundaries. Rather, we are actively searching for border crossings. We strive toward understanding, work on permeability, co-operation and coexistence. Encounters lead the way to recovery. They are the medicament of Ego-state therapy. Ego-state therapy is about the encounter with the inner person, meaning the inner parts of an individual. It is about the encounter with strangers, with the parts that challenge us, the ones we avoid, we have lost contact with, that scare us or make us feel helpless. Moreover, Ego-state therapy is about experiencing therapeutic approaches and overcoming conceptual boundaries. We offer multilingual therapy and in addition, we permanently work as translators. The late, German history provides multiple societal and political examples highlighting the area of conflict between integration and integrity. This article will use these examples for illustration purposes.

Miriam Gebhardt

Crimes unspoken. The rape of German women at the end oft the Second World War.

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 141-155

At the end of the Second World War, quite the same happened in the American, British and in the French occupation zones as in Eastern Germany and Eastern Europe more generally: thousands of German women were raped by foreign soldiers. This fact has rarely if ever been acknowledged. The victims knew that they had no possibility to bring the perpetrators to justice; the societies in question were much more sexually inhibited than today; and, finally, sexual contact with the enemy was scandalized. These factors explain why most of the victims preferred not to talk about what had happened to them. Today, seventy years after the events, many of them are still suffering from symptoms associated with PTSD. What is more, their children too have to deal with the consequences of the crimes.

Ibrahim Özkan, Maria Ott, Alexander Strecker, Johanna Oppermann und Leonie Falke

The own and the foreign in cross-cultural encounter - The instinctiveness of alienation

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 157-167

In the context of psychotherapeutic treatment, the individual cultural background of both therapist and client has to be taken into consideration. Especially therapists tend to seek prior knowledge regarding their clients’ culture, trying to antagonize feelings of insecurity and alienation when confronted with “the unkown”. These feelings are common and natural. However, as this article concludes, it might be advisable to admit to these feelings and to seek information regarding a clients’ culture by listening and asking, as opposed to gathering prior information. In general, the present article addresses cross-cultural encounter in the context of psychotherapy and the therefore occuring feelings of insecurity and alienation and how to deal with them.

Burkhard Peter, Eva Böbel, Maria Hagl, Mario Richter und Miguel Kazén

Differences in personality styles of psychotherapists in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in relation to the applied psychotherapeutic techniques and the use of hypnosis

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 169-192

In an online survey conducted in 2015, 1027 psychotherapists from Germany, Austria and Switzerland provided data on their personal and professional background. They filled in the short version of the PSDI (Personality Style and Disorder Inventory), answering 56 questions. The personality profiles showed the following distinctions: (1) German psychotherapists are less intuitive/schizotypal than the ones in Austria and Switzerland; (2) older psychotherapists using psychoanalysis, other psychoanalytical techniques or client-centered therapy are more reserved/schizoid, more ambitious/narcissistic, and more intuitive/schizotypal than younger psychotherapists applying behaviour or systemic therapy; (3) therapists using psychoanalysis are more willful/paranoid then those using behaviour therapy; (4) behaviour therapists are less intuitive/schizotypal than therapists using client-centered therapy or “other approaches”; (5) therapists using “other approaches” are more optimistic/rhapsodic than the ones applying psychoanalysis or psychoanalytical approaches. (6) Those who use also hypnosis are less passive/depressive but more optimistic/rhapsodic. The results in this study contradict populist presumptions and reveal psychotherapists to be healthy and seasoned personalities.

Maria Hagl

Efficacy and effectiveness research in the field of clinical hypnosis in 2017

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 193-209

An annual literature search that is funded by the Milton Erickson Society of Clinical Hypnosis in Germany, revealed altogether 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate clinical hypnosis and were published in 2017, as well as several meta-analyses that included primary studies with hypnosis as intervention. Eight randomized trials with clinical samples compared hypnosis to a control group without hypnosis; moreover, two RCTs evaluated interventions that combined hypnotherapeutic and cognitive-behavioural methods. In further four RCTs, hypnosis was used in both study arms, to evaluate research questions beyond the relative efficacy of hypnosis, by addressing matters of setting (self-hypnosis at home vs. hypnotherapy with a therapist) or content (symptom-specific suggestions vs. unspecific suggestions). As in the years before, female gender was overrepresented in most samples (mainly because of the targeted disorders), and mostly somatic indications were studied; however, four meta-analyses focussed on psychological problems or outcomes. Most RCTs were reported sufficiently detailed to appraise the relevance of their findings. Altogether, efficacy research in the field of clinical hypnosis is expanding, but there are still too few treatment studies targeting psychological disorders. Finally, results of an uncontrolled naturalistic study evaluating the effectiveness of an outpatient hypnotherapeutic treatment are presented because of their high relevance for clinical practice.

Rupert Reichart

„The pleasant journey will certainly turn out well“. The application of hypnosis in a surgical procedure for deep brain stimulation - a case history

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 211-220

This is a report of deep brain stimulation conducted under hypnosis. The 73-year-old male patient suffered from medically refractory essential tremor. In order to create optimal conditions for intraoperative testing of the response to Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), no sedation was used. The procedure, encompassing a five-hour-plus hypnotic intervention with two instances of dehypnosis, provided optimal operative conditions and enhanced the possibilities for intraoperative testing to refine DBS lead positioning.

Ernil Hansen und Nina Zech

„I make myself a fruit cocktail with a mixer“. A case report – an example of hypnotic communication during 106 interventions for Deep Brain Stimulation

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 221-229

At the Centre for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the University Hospital of Regensburg, Germany, in the last 11 years 106 patients were guided through their brain pacemaker implantation mainly by hypnotic communication. The procedure of this “awake craniotomy” is explained using the example of an 67-years old patient with Parkinson`s diease and discussed with own publications. The described approach is built upon analgesia by cranial nerve blocks. The challenge is an optimal management of the remaining stresses, e.g. by avoidance of negative suggestions, instructions for dissociation in place or time (imagination), and reframing of disturbing noises (drilling in the skull) and sensations, and by development of relaxing, stabilizing and supportive suggestions. Building up a trusting relationship is essential. Extend of guidance and of interventions is following the principle “as much as necessary, not more than necessary” to allow for and enhance the experience of self-competece and self-effectiveness. These principles of an patient-oriented hypnotic communication are easily communicable, both to doctors without a specific training in hypnosis and by them to their patients. This increases applicability in clinical routine, and triggers professional interest in the therapeutic potentials of hypnosis.

Alexander von Delhaes

Requisites of Hypnosis

Hypnose-ZHH 2018, 13(2), 237-255

Ten instruments are described which, from 1784 until the 20th century, were designed and sold for inducing and deepening the effect of animal magnetism or the state of hypnosis, respectively, or to test the receptivity for it.

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