Volume 12, Double-issue 1+ 2, October 2017, 240 pages

of the journal Hypnose – Zeitschrift für Hypnose und Hypnotherapie (Hypnose-ZHH)

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Table of Contents

  • Claudia Wilhelm-Gößling und Cornelie Schweizer
    The Hypnotherapy-Depression-Treatment-Manual – Hypnosis in clinical context. Work in progress
  • Heinz-Wilhelm Gößling
    Sleep disturbance as a key symptom of depressive disorders – Sleep focused interventions in hypnotherapy for depression
  • Anil Batra und Kristina Fuhr
    The therapeutic variety in the treatment of depression. The contribution of psychotherapy
  • Irving Kirsch
    The Placebo Effect in the Treatment of Depression
  • Heiner Keupp
    The exhausted self in psychology
  • Dirk Revenstorf
    Selfcare
  • Alina Haipt, Katharina-Sophia Licht, Katja Dehnen, Saskia Deppermann, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Dirk Revenstorf, Ann-Christine Ehlis
    A psychophysiological comparison of hypnotic trance and relaxation: a pilot study
  • Burkhard Peter, Tanja Prade, Emilia Geiger und Christoph Piesbergen
    Hypnotisability, personality style, and attachment of 15 - 19 year old students. An exploratory study
  • Hansjörg Ebell
    Hypno-therapeutic communication: Core element of a Resonance Based Medicine
  • Maria Hagl
    Efficacy research in the field of clinical hypnosis in 2016

 

Abstracts

 

Claudia Wilhelm-Gößling und Cornelie Schweizer

The Hypnotherapy-Depression-Treatment-Manual – Hypnosis in clinical context. Work in progress

Hypnose-ZHH 2017, 12 (1+2), 7-28

The development, the system as well as the content of the therapeutic manual of the Milton Erickson Society (MEG) "Hypnotherapeutic Depression Therapy (HDT) in mild to moderate depression" and two case studies are presented. The efficacy of HDT compared with cognitive behavioral therapy is currently investigated in a randomized clinical trial in the psychiatric-psychotherapeutic outpatient clinic of the Universitätsklinukum Tübingen (Prof. Dr. A. Batra). The 31 modules of the manual were written by a group of authors and then revised for the manual in a way that an individual overall treatment plan can be created. The clinical pro­cedure can be individually modified and adapted to the respective treatment requirements by the selection of the modules plus by their specific content design. The individual modules take into account the specific depressive symptoms as well as current and biographical stress or traumatic factors and provide specific instructions for the clinical-therapeutic process. Above all instuctions are given for adapting hypnotherapeutic strategies to the existing differences in the ego structure and functional capacity (according to OPD-2, Axis IV/Psychodynamic Dia­gnostic Manual, PDM-2). Therfore the HDT-Manual allows a „Structural-based-Hypnothera­py“.

Key words: Treatment of depression, hypnotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, manual

Heinz-Wilhelm Gößling

Sleep disturbance as a key symptom of depressive disorders – Sleep focused interventions in hypnotherapy for depression

Hypnose-ZHH 2017, 12 (1+2), 29-50

Sleep disturbances are an important risk factor for beginning and relapsing of depressive dis­orders. They are a key symptom at the interface between biological und psychological impact on depression and therefore an effective target for specific therapeutic interventions. Hypnosis and hypnotherapy offer a large repertoire of sleep focused interventions. Stan­dar­dized modu­lar forms are available from some of the described interventions. These modules are part of the therapeutic manual "Hypnotherapeutic Depression Therapy (HDT) in mild to moderate depression", which contains 31 therapeutic modules totally. At present the efficacy of HDT is investigated by a controlled, randomized study at the department of psychiatry and psychothe­rapy of the University of Tübingen.

Key words: Sleep disturbance, depressive disorders, hypnosis, hypnotherapy, therapeutic ma­nual

Anil Batra und Kristina Fuhr

The therapeutic variety in the treatment of depression. The contribution of psychotherapy

Hypnose-ZHH 2017, 12 (1+2), 51-61

The increase in the burden of disease by depressive diseases in industrialized countries calls for greater attention from research, prevention and treatment. While the current therapy guide­lines mainly focus on cognitive behavioral therapies as well as pharmacotherapy, there is still low evidence-based evidence for the recommendation of other psychotherapy methods (for example, third wave of behavioral therapy or hypnotherapy). There is also a great need for re­search on efficacy of psychotherapy in general. An evaluation of ongoing research activities in hypnotherapy „clinicaltrials.gov“ shows that only a few studies are conducted in a rando­mized clinical design. The “WIKI-D” study is an exception – this study compares a 20-sessi­on hypnotherapy to cognitive behavioral therapy with regard to equivalency. We still are at the beginning of the development of individualized therapy concepts in depression treatment. Only a higher degree of individualization through the diversification of the range of services and the establishment of clear allocation criteria will improve the treatment resources for depressed persons.

Key words: Depression, behavioural therapy, psychotherapy, hypnotherapy

Irving Kirsch

The Placebo Effect in the Treatment of Depression

Hypnose-ZHH 2017, 12 (1+2), 63-80

Antidepressants are supposed to work by fixing a chemical imbalance, specifically, a lack of serotonin in the brain. But analyses of the published and the unpublished data that were hid­den by the drug companies reveal that most (if not all) of the benefits are due to the placebo effect. Some antidepressants increase serotonin levels, some decrease serotonin, and some have no effect at all on serotonin. Nevertheless, they all show the same therapeutic benefit. Ins­tead of curing depression, popular antidepressants may induce a biological vulnerability making people more likely to become depressed in the future. Other treatments (e.g., psycho­therapy and physical exercise) produce the same short term benefits as antidepressants, show better long term effectiveness, and do so without the side effects and health risks of the drugs.

Key words: Antidepressants, placebo, depression, psychotherapy

Heiner Keupp

The exhausted self in psychology

Hypnose-ZHH 2017, 12 (1+2), 81-102

Currently, there is an inflationary pre-occupation with the subject of burnout, which has per­vaded almost all professional groups as well as the private worlds of many in global capita­lism. It is clear that the helping professions are seen as especially prone to exhaustion. Is it enough to recommend more "self-care" or "mindfulness"? It remains imperative to contextua­lize psychosocial work and, at the same time, to work on overcoming the increa-sing "social blindness" or "social amnesia" in current psychology. The anticipated trium-phal march of the entire PSY-guild has been cut short since the 1980s. The erstwhi-le utopian energies are also considered to have been exhausted in the course of neoliberal globalization, and the psychoso­cial professions are in a general social crisis mode. Psycholo-gy is affected by the social chan­ges in an fundamental way. Critical reflection on these trends has been rather tentative and must be continued and intensified. The fatigue symp-toms of PSY-professionals in particular require an examination of their origins and preconditions.

Key words: Professonalisation, psychosocial practice, critic of profession, postmodern social conditions, neoliberal anthropology, psychosocial ressources

Dirk Revenstorf

Selfcare

Hypnose-ZHH 2017, 12 (1+2), 103-113

In spite of a high level of quality of life the rate of depression and anxiety is increasing in western civilizations. Modern culture encourages self exploitation of various types, which help to adapt to the demands to achieve but limit the spectrum of experience in the long run. Self­care counteracts this development and is the basis for the ability to help others. There are se­veral aspects of selfcare, part of which dying persons often regret to have neglected: mind­fulness, communion, authenticity, empathy, thankfulness and to be able to forgive. Fostering these abilities results in personal happiness, psychological wellbeing and promotes compassi­on.

Key words: selfcare, mindfulness, communion, authenticity, empathy, thankfulness, forgiven­ess

Alina Haipt, Katharina-Sophia Licht, Katja Dehnen, Saskia Deppermann, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Dirk Revenstorf, Ann-Christine Ehlis

A psychophysiological comparison of hypnotic trance and relaxation: a pilotstudiy

Hypnose-ZHH 2017, 12 (1+2), 115-140

This pilot study aims at finding differences between hypnotic trance and relaxation. Pre­vious studies used the Cerebral State Index (CSI) to measure the depth of trance (Bock, 2011) and heart rate variablity (HRV) to differentiate trance from relaxation (Diamond, Davis, & Howe, 2008). In this study both measures were combined. Each five high and low suggestible parti­cipants were induced to relaxation and trance. The results suggest that relaxation was different from trance in high suggestibles for both measures. The CSI and HRV decreased during tran­ce, as well as the high frequencies of the HRV, while the low frequencies of the HRV increas­ed. These results indicate that in high suggestibles the influence of the autonomic nervous sys­tem shifted in trance compared to relaxation while participants were less awake. This was in line with the participants‘ subjective evaluation of trance depth.

Key words: hypnosis, trance, relaxation, Cerebral State Monitor, heart rate variability

Burkhard Peter, Tanja Prade, Emilia Geiger und Christoph Piesbergen

Hypnotisability, personality style, and attachment of 15 - 19 year old students. An exploratory study

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 141-172

This article is an exploratory study investigating the relationship between hypnotizability, per­sonality style, and attachment. Data were collected from 99 students by means of the HGSHS:A, PSDI, and RSQ. Results suggest that individual personality styles accounted for a significant amount of variance in hypnotizability in: (a) the whole sample, (b) the securely at­tached, and (c) the insecurely attached. High hypnotizables among both the whole sample and securely attached individuals shared the unselfish/self-sacrificing personality style as a main predictor of hypnotizability and displayed elevated scores for the charming/histrionic and the optimistic/rhapsodic personality style. Furthermore, two groups were identified among the high hypnotizables that differed mainly according to attachment style: one consists of secure­ly attached, charming/histrionic, and optimistic/rhapsodic people, who are best de­scribed by socio-cognitive theories. The other is composed of insecurely attached intui­tive/ schizotypal people, who are better depicted by dissociation theories.

Key words: hypnotizability, personality style, attachment

Hansjörg Ebell

Hypno-therapeutic communication: Core element of a Resonance Based Medicine

Hypnose-ZHH 2017, 12 (1+2), 173-202

Interactions between health care professionals and their patients should focus on careful­ly-chosen goals and appropriate means to achieve those goals. Arguments for or against particu­lar diagnostic and therapeutic measures will need to be continuously evaluated. In this respect not only objective findings but also discussions as well as personal assessments can prove de­cisive. An atmosphere of reciprocal resonance between the caregiver and the careseeker crea­tes the optimal conditions for the application of professional expertise. System-theoretical the­ses regarding the regulation within complex, self-referential systems – and among such sys­tems – can serve as a map that offers orientation in an unknown territory. Therapeutic com­munication is an exchange that focuses on the potential benefits it can yield for the stated goal. Here, a posture of confident expectation will prove constructive and effective. This qua­lity of intersubjective resonance has proven itself helpful and effective in both counseling and psychotherapy, as well as in medicine. Moreover, using hypnosis and self-hypnosis demons­trates that trance phenomena can also be utilized as resources (Milton H. Erikson) within the context of an adequate complete therapeutic concept. „Resonance Based Medicine“(RBM) is a concept that refers to the fundamental significance of intersubjective resonance for all inter­actions in the service of health. It is a proposal that invokes the scientific application of an analogy to physical resonance as encountered in disciplines such as systemic theory, psycho­logy, philosophy and sociology. „Resonance Based Medicine“ is an understanding of medici­ne that treats intersubjective communication and relationship as the basis of all diagnostic consideration and therapeutic action. The onomatopoeic similarity to „Evidence Based Medi­cine“ (EBM), the scientific gold standard today, is in­tentional. Both concepts, EBM and RBM, can and should complement each other. Viewed from the perspective of interventions the cause and effect relationship (pathogenesis) requires a perspective on interrelation that features resources and growth potential in order to call upon the inherent possibilities of the individual (salutogenesis). Both aspects are characteristic for a clinical medicine in which pa­tient-centered communication is practiced. Both must be unconditionally respected in the face of chronic illness with its complex structure of objective and subjective factors. The profes­sional challenge of fostering an atmosphere of growth for the patient is particular valid for the relationship between physician and patient; hypnotherapeutic communication emanates from an attentiveness and receptivity that makes it a particularly suitable core element here.

Key words: resonance, Resonance Based Medicine (RBM), Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), intersubjective resonance, patient centered communication, therapeutic communication, hyp­notherapeutic communication, biopsychosocial approach, salutogenesis

Maria Hagl

Efficacy research in the field of clinical hypnosis in 2016

Hypnose-ZHH 2017, 12 (1+2), 203-216

Each year a literature search, funded by the Milton Erickson Society of Clinical Hypnosis in Germany, is performed for newly published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating clinical hypnosis, as well as for respective meta-analyses. In 2016, twelve trials with randomi­zed or quasi-randomized designs and clinical samples that evaluated hypnosis in relation to a control group were published, as well as two studies that evaluated interventions that combi­ned hypnotherapeutic and cognitive-behavioural methods. Results from these studies and from the 2016 published meta-analyses add to the evidence for hypnosis showing additional benefit in the treatment of somatic syndromes by also reducing accompanying psychological symp­toms. Particularly sleep problems might be a worthwhile secondary outcome for meta-analytic evaluation, for example, in oncological or gynaecological studies. In addition, there are on­going and recently completed trials that will increase the knowledge concerning the ef­ficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of sleep problems.

Key words: Hypnosis, hypnotherapy, efficacy, effectiveness, psychotherapy research, rando­mized controlled trials, RCT.