Volume 11, Double-issue 1+2, October 2016, 272 pages

of the journal Hypnose – Zeitschrift für Hypnose und Hypnotherapie (Hypnose-ZHH)

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Table of Contents

  • Anthony D. Kauders
    Family Resemblances: Charisma and Hypnosis as Interactive Relationships
  • Björn Husmann
    «The last and the first days…» Light and shadow in the work of Johannes Heinrich Schultz before and after 1945
  • Uwe Schellinger
    Stage hypnosis in the Third Reich: The case of Baden
  • Burkhard Peter
  • Were the Nazis opposed to hypnosis?
  • Ludwig Mayer
    On the phenomenology of hypnotism (1936)
  • Christoph Sollmann
    The Technique of covert anchoring in hypnosis and how it is used in clinical practice
  • Maria Hagl
    Efficacy research in the field of clinical hypnosis and hypnotherapy in 2015
  • Emilia Geiger, Burkhard Peter, Tanja Prade und Christoph Piesbergen
    Intelligence and hypnotic susceptibility: Is there a connection?
  • Burkhard Peter und Charlotte Lenhard
    Did psychoanalysis repress hypnosis? A quantitative investigation on the basis of publication rates 1884 - 1969
  • Hansjörg Ebell
    “Resonance”. The treatment of long lasting chronic pain focuses on a change of perspectives – Case Report

 

Abstracts

 

Anthony D. Kauders

Family Resemblances: Charisma and Hypnosis as Interactive Relationships

Hypnose-ZHH 2016, 11 (1+2), 7-25

In juxtaposing state and non-state theories, the social psychologist Theodore Sarbin distinguished between scholars for whom hypnosis was akin to „happenings“ and scholars for whom hypnosis resembled „doings“. In a similar vein, work on Hitler’s „charisma“ has relied on two ideal-typical approaches: one position highlights Hitler’s charismatic abilities or the construction of his „charisma“ via propaganda; the other position holds that the expectations of Hitler’s supporters produced his „charisma“. In the first case („seeing is believing“), Hitler dominated the relationship, in the second („believing is seeing“) Germans projected their hopes and fantasies onto an otherwise non-descript figure. Upon examining both interpretations, the essay suggests that interactionist perspectives from within the field of hypnosis could be applied to future studies of charisma.

Key words: Charisma, Hitler, hypnosis, social psychology, mass psychology

 

Björn Husmann

«The last and the first days…» Light and shadow in the work of Johannes Heinrich Schultz before and after 1945

Hypnose-ZHH 2016, 11 (1+2), 27-70

This article focuses on the work of Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. J. H. Schultz, who is normally known as the founder of autogenic training (AT). Most scholars are less familiar with his influence on the professionalization of psychotherapy in German-speaking countries from the beginning of the twentieth century until the late 1960s. Key aspects of this article are related to his work on hypnosis, either in connection with AT or the so-called «neue deutsche Seelenheilkunde». Based on the comprehensive bibliography of his work (Husmann, 2015), the article outlines exemplary publications from the period 1933-45, which allows the reader to appreciate the role of hypnosis, AT, and other psychotherapeutic methods during the Third Reich. The relationship between the «neue deutsche Seelenheilkunde», eugenics and euthanasia is also examined. Finally, the article offers a critical analysis of Schultz’s post-war publications, including his reflections on his career in the NS-system.

Key words: Johannes Heinrich Schultz, hypnosis, National Socialism, post-war period, auto­genic training, «neue deut-sche Seelenheilkunde», history of psychotherapy, medical-psychotherapeutic holism concept

 

Uwe Schellinger

Stage hypnosis in the Third Reich: The case of Baden

Hypnose-ZHH 2016, 11 (1+2), 71-97

The article examines the way in which state authorities in Baden confronted stage hypnosis during the Third Reich. It can be shown that officials appropriated the language of earlier de­crees from the Kaiserreich period in their struggle against lay and stage hypnotists. This continuity between the 1880s and 1930s suggests that National Socialist ideology was largely absent from early concerns with the phenomenon. In the course of their campaign against sta­ge hypnosis, National Socialists in Baden especially targeted the prominent figure of “Rolf Syl­vero” (Eduard Neumann), whose career was ruined as a result. Because hypnosis was as­so­ciated with occultism, hypnotists also faced persecution during the so-called “Sonderaktion Heß”. Private libraries containing works on hypnosis were confiscated. Future research on individual hypnotists might allow for a more accurate picture of the extent to which National Socialists opposed (stage) hypnosis.

Key words: Occultism, National Socialism, stage hypnosis, Rolf Sylvéro, „Sonderaktion Heß“

 

Burkhard Peter

Were the Nazis opposed to hypnosis?

Hypnose-ZHH 2016, 11 (1+2), 99-134

Over the past decades, scholars from various fields have associated National Socialism with hypnosis and suggestion. It is known that the National Socialist regime persecuted several hypnotists, some of whom were incarcerated in concentration camps. These actions might suggest that Hitler and other prominent Nazis wished to suppress hypnosis in order to conceal the fact that they themselves were masters of hypnosis and suggestion. This hypothesis is tested by examining pertinent literature, National Socialist press directives, Goebbels’ diaries, and the membership files of the so-called Göring Institute. It can be shown that the National Socialists did not object to hypnosis as long as it was applied in a scientific or clinical context. In such cases, they even supported the practice. By contrast, the Third Reich fought lay and stage hypnosis as part of the larger struggle against occultism, particularly during two campaigns in 1937 and 1941. Since the days of Anton Mesmer, hypnosis had been linked with occultism. As such, the persecution of lay and stage hypnotists in this period can be seen as part of the “collateral damage” that ensued during the National Socialist crusade against the occultist enemy.

Key words: Hypnosis, suggestion, struggle against occultism, National Socialism

 

Ludwig Mayer

On the phenomenology of hypnotism (1936)

Hypnose-ZHH 2016, 11 (1+2), 135-156

Dr. Ludwig Mayer, a prominent neurologist from Heidelberg, was involved in the production of two instructional films on hypnosis that the Reichsstelle für Unterrichtsfilm (RfdU) had commissioned. Mayer also wrote the commentaries on these films. The paper on „Versuche zur forensischen Bedeutung der Hypnose“ (“Concerning the forensic significance of hypnosis”) has already been published in the last volume 10 of this journal Hypnose-ZHH in 2015. What follows ist he commentary on the fim „Zur Phänomenologie der Hypnose“ (“On the phenomenology of hypnosis”). By film and commentary Mayer makes an attempt to give an overview on several aspects of hypnotism: hypnotic state, induction methods, hypnosis depth, rapport, and different hypnotic phenomena like physiological, affective, motoric and cognitive phenomena. Mayer´s stance in 1936 is very similar to that of Liégeois in 1884. Accordingly, as well as through his experiences as an expert witness in the Heidelberg Hypnosistrial 1936, he is forced to conclude that crime in a hypnotic state was possible. (See also the last volume 10 of this journal in 2015, in which this trial is discussed.)

Key words: Hypnosis, free will, abulia, crime

 

Christoph Sollmann

The Technique of covert anchoring in hypnosis and how it is used in clinical practice

Hypnose-ZHH 2016, 11 (1+2), 157-175

The covert-anchoring technique presented in this article constitutes an expansion of – or a complement to – the hypnotherapeutic treatment plan. Covert anchoring as a combination of hypnosis, NLP and aversion therapy has demonstrated its efficiency in treating certain addictions such as smoking and overconsumption of alcohol. This technique can also be used effectively to treat poor eating habits such as consuming too many sweets as well as intractable habits like fingernail biting. Meticulous preparation is required before implementing this technique along with the observation of indications and contraindications. The therapist is obliged to explain the treatment to the client or patient, both in a personal consultation as well as in writing. The use of the technique requires solid knowledge of hypnotherapeutic procedures. It is described here how elements of aversion therapy are used, and how the concept of anchoring, known from NLP, is widened to encompass the definition of the term "covert." The technique is broken down into six steps: establish an anchor (1); create a hypnotic phrase (2); develop a neutral narrative and interweave it with the hypnotic phrase (3); present the neutral narrative to the client (4); fire the anchor (5); future-pacing and/or post-hypnotic suggestion (6). For illustration a case vignette is presented alongside a number of examples. The vignette depicts the treatment of excessive alcohol consumption by means of the covert-anchoring technique.

Key words: anchoring technique (covert), alcohol abuse, aversion therapy, clinical hypnosis, direct vs. indirect methods, Neuro-linguistic Programming

 

Maria Hagl

Efficacy research in the field of clinical hypnosis and hypnotherapy in 2015

Hypnose-ZHH 2016, 11 (1+2), 177-189

A yearly literature search for newly published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating clinical hypnosis, as well as for respective meta-analyses is funded by the Milton Erickson Society of Clinical Hypnosis, Germany. In 2015, five trials with randomized or quasi-randomized design could be identified. However, not all of them were of convincing methodological quality, which points to the importance of current reporting standards (e.g., CONSORT), also in light of recent meta-analyses. According to the respective trial registers, numerous RCTs are underway. In the years to come, their results will be more than welcome, as for nearly all indications for clinical hypnosis further evidence from methodological sound studies is needed.

Key words: Hypnosis, hypnotherapy, efficacy, effectiveness, psychotherapy research, randomized controlled trials, RCT

 

Emilia Geiger, Burkhard Peter, Tanja Prade und Christoph Piesbergen

Intelligence and hypnotic susceptibility: Is there a connection?

Hypnose-ZHH 2016, 11 (1+2), 191-209

At the end of the 1960s, the search for a connection between hypnotic susceptibility and intelligence was discontinued. Results from the previous 30 years are partly conflicting and overall not very convincing, so that apparently the opinion manifested that there is no connection at all. 92 high school and 8 secondary school students, aged between 15 and 19 years, were tested for intelligence by means of the I-S-T 2000 R and for hypnotic susceptibility with the HGSHS:A. No correlations could be observed for the overall sample unselected by gender, because the negative correlations for male participants canceled out the positive correlations for the female subsample. These are significant for the total value of intelligence (r= .288) and highly significant for the subcategory ‘verbal intelligence’ (r= .348), yet non-significant for the subcategories ‘numerical intelligence’ and ‘figural intelligence’. Females seem to be more able to imaginatively process semantic contents induced verbally. They also seem to have a higher task motivation than males – at least during adolescence.

Key words: hypnotic susceptibility, intelligence, IQ, gender differences

For English version of this article see:

Geiger, E., Peter, B., Prade, T., & Piesbergen, C. (2014). Intelligence and hypnotizability: Is there a connection? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 62(3), 310-329. doi:10.1080/00207144.2014.901083

 

Burkhard Peter und Charlotte Lenhard

Did psychoanalysis repress hypnosis? A quantitative investigation on the basis of publication rates 1884 - 1969

Hypnose-ZHH 2016, 11 (1+2), 211-232

In oder to test the hypothesis that psychoanalysis led to the demise of hypnosis, the publication rates of the literature on hypnosis and psychoanalysis were correlated for the period 1890 – 1969. Two bibliographies were used: „Bibliographie der Hypnose 1890 – 1969“ by Dietrich Langen (1974) with a total of 3422 German references and „Index of Psychoanalytic Writings“ by Alexander Grinstein (1956-1975) of which 1446 German references were extracted for 1900 - 1969. An overall significant positive correlation of r=.471 indicates that the above hypothesis cannot be sustained. On closer examination, however, the plotted publication rates display three distinct periods that allow for the calculation of separate correlations. The results show (1) a significant negative correlation of r=-.592 for 1900 – 1913, which can be explained by two (not necessarily connected) develoments: the decline of hypnosis since 1888 and the rise of psychoanalysis since 1908; (2) a significant positive correlation of r=.772 for 1914 – 1945, which can be attributed, first, to the application of hypnosis and psychoanalysis in cases of „war neurosis“ during and immediately after WW I, and, second, to the rapid decline of both therapeutic approaches from approximately the onset of the world economic crisis of 1929 onward; (3) a non-significant correlation (r=.392) for the post-war period 1946 – 1969. An attempt is made to interpret these different correlations not only with reference to transformations within the field of psychotherapy, but also by accounting for the wider socio-economical and political developments of the time.

Key words: hypnosis, psychoanalysis, publication rates, World War

 

Hansjörg Ebell

“Resonance”. The treatment of long lasting chronic pain focuses on a change of perspectives – Case Report

Hypnose-ZHH 2016, 11 (1+2), 233-245

During the period of ten years in which Mr. K., 64 years old, was “fighting” pain, his incentive was avoidance. The struggle led him ever deeper into a spiraling cycle of pain, resignation and depression: Despite highly dosed medication his attention remained directed toward pain as the sole explanation of his suffering. Decisive changes evolved as a result of our intense collaboration as “experts”: Mr. K. had the expertise of personal chronic pain ex­pe­rience (being ill); the author’s expertise pertains to the treatment of chronic pain (illness). Numerous experiences enhancing self-efficacy through attainable and rewarding goals enabled Mr. K. to refocus step by step on progress rather than failure. Thirty-five sessions over a period of two years, some of them including Mrs. K., promoted his progressive change of perspective away from pain toward a better quality of life. This development found realization through a therapeutic concept based on systemic approaches. “Intersubjective resonance” ope­ned up new areas of potential change, and interpersonal interactions took shape within the context of “therapeutic communication”.

Key words: resonance, chronic pain, therapeutic communication, resources, self-efficacy, solution orientation, “resonance based medicine”