Volume 10, Double-issue 1+2, October 2015, 183 pages

of the journal Hypnose – Zeitschrift für Hypnose und Hypnotherapie (Hypnose-ZHH)

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Table of Contents

  • Burkhard Peter
    Is Hypnosis sufficient to commit a crime? The controversy between Mayer and Bürger-Prinz surrounding the Heidelberg Trial of 1936. An early example of discourse concerning the state of consciousness under hypnosis
  • Ludwig Mayer
    Concerning the forensic significance of hypnosis
  • Steven Jay Lynn, Jean-Roch Laurence und Irving Kirsch
    Hypnosis, Suggestion, and Suggestibility: An Integrative Model
  • Anthony D. Kauders
    Seduction, surrender, command: hypnosis and crime in Germany after the First World War
  • Maren J. Cordi, Sarah Hirsiger, Susan Mérillat und Björn Rasch
    Improving sleep and cognition in by hypnotic suggestion in the elderly
  • Katalin Varga und Zoltán Kekecs
    Oxytocin and cortisol in the hypnotic interaction
  • Maria Hagl
    Efficacy research in the field of clinical hypnosis in the year 2014
  • Ronja Stender, Anil Batra, and Björn Riegel
    Individual explanations of former female smokers for their successful cessation with hypnosis in groups: A qualitative study
  • Anke Precht
    „Regulator down, flash forward!“ Regulation of physical and psychological tension by drive and determination: The Hypno-Coaching of a cross country MTB rider. A case study.
  • Peter Drißl
    Fear and success. A case study

Abstracts

Burkhard Peter

Is Hypnosis sufficient to commit a crime? The controversy between Mayer and Bürger-Prinz surrounding the Heidelberg Trial of 1936. An early example of discourse concerning the state of consciousness under hypnosis

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 7-26

Based on the Heidelberg Trial of 1936, two contrasting positions on the „state“ under hypnosis are examined. The Heidelberg neurologist Ludwig Mayer, expert witness during the proceedings, maintained that the male suspect had kept his female „victim“ in a state of abulia for the duration of seven years. In this form of hypnotic bondage, she was incapable of resisting the crimes committed against her (rape, prostitution) as well as by her (attempted murder). The Hamburg psychiatrist Hans Bürger-Prinz, by contrast, doubted this interpretation of events, arguing instead that psychological and social psychological factors rather than a special hypnotic state best explained the phenomena under discussion. This dispute highlights the controversy between state and non-state theorists that had commenced well before 1936 and that is still with us today. References to the most important representatives of both sides in the debate will complement the discussion of the trial.

Keywords: Hypnosis, abulia, crime, state and non-state theories

 

Ludwig Mayer

Concerning the forensic significance of hypnosis

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 27-43

Dr. Ludwig Mayer, a prominent neurologist from Heidelberg, served as the most important expert witness during a criminal trial that took place in the Baden city from 23 May to 15 June 1936. The prosecutor accused two men of having psychologically enslaved and „shamelessly exploited“ a woman for a period of seven years by using hypnotic suggestion against her. In the past six volumes (4 to 9) of Hypnose-ZHH (2009 to 2014) the proceedings of the trial as covered in the „Heidelberger Neueste Nachrichten“ were reprinted. Mayer was also involved in the production of two instructional films on hypnosis that the Reichsstelle für Unterrichts- film (RfdU) had commissioned: „Zur Phänomenologie der Hypnose“ (“On the phenomenology of hypnosis”) and „Versuche zur forensischen Bedeutung der Hypnose“ (“Concerning the forensic significance of hypnosis”). Particularly in the latter he sought to demonstrate that crime in a hypnotic state was possible, thereby anticipating the main argument of his subsequent book on the trial. A facsimile of a commentary on the film is reproduced here to illustrate the main thrust of Mayer’s argument.

Keywords: Hypnosis, free will, abulia, crime

 

Steven Jay Lynn, Jean-Roch Laurence und Irving Kirsch

Hypnosis, Suggestion, and Suggestibility: An Integrative Model

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 45-62


This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

Keywords: attention, cognitive, core and process variables in hypnosis, expectancy, hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, induction, response set theory, socio-cognitive models, suggestion

 

Anthony D. Kauders

Seduction, surrender, command: hypnosis and crime in Germany after the First World War

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 63-80

Early reactions to mesmerism already documented a form of binary thinking that interpreted control and loss of control along gendered and class lines, pitting bourgeois male hypnotists against hypnotized effeminate masses. This dualism persisted after the First World War, albeit to varying degrees. In the dispute over possible crimes committed under the influence of hypnosis two camps vied against each other: the „sceptics“ maintained that the „moral inhibitions“ found in most individuals precluded the criminal abuse of hypnosis; the „believers“, by contrast, argued that devious hypnotists could successfully circumvent these inhibitions and command weak-willed persons to perpetrate crimes in a (post)hypnotic state. Despite these differences both sides distinguished between „active“ hypnotists and „passive“ hypnotisands. The concept of a „therapeutic tertium“ could serve as a means to contest and overcome this dualism.

Keywords: Crime, hypnosis, free will, crowd psychology

 

Maren J. Cordi, Sarah Hirsiger, Susan Mérillat and Björn Rasch

Improving sleep and cognition in by hypnotic suggestion in the elderly

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 81-93


Sleep quality as well as deep sleep markedly decline across the human lifespan (Ohayon et al., 2004). This decrease is paralleled by and presumably associated with a loss of cognitive functioning in the elderly (Mander et al., 2013). Studies show that hypnotherapy is successful to deepen sleep in younger adults (Cordi et al., 2014). In the present controlled experimental study, healthy elderly females listened to hypnotic suggestions to sleep deeper or to a control tape before a midday nap while high density electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. After the hypnotic suggestion, we observed a 57% increase in slow-wave sleep (SWS) in females suggestible to hypnosis as compared to the control condition. Furthermore, slow-wave activity (SWA), characteristic for SWS, was significantly increased, followed by a significant improvement in cognitive functioning after sleep. Our results suggest that hypnotic suggestions might be a successful alternative for widely-used sleep-enhancing medication to extend SWS and improve cognition in the elderly.

Keywords: Hypnosis, slow-wave sleep, aging, cognitive function, high density electroencephalography

 

Katalin Varga and Zoltán Kekecs

Oxytocin and cortisol in the hypnotic interaction

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 95-112

Changes in oxytocin and cortisol levels were tested in healthy volunteers during hypnotic interactions in standardized lab- oratory sessions. Preto posthypnosis changes of oxytocin and cortisol were related to the hypnotic susceptibility of subjects and the relational experiences reposted by subjects and hypnotists on several paper-and-pencil tests. Results show that the changes in oxytocin are not related to hypnotic susceptibility but to relational experiences. After the hypnotic interaction, the subject’s oxytocin level increased if perceived harmony with the hypnotist was high, whereas it increased in the hypnotist if the subject had memories of less warm emotional relationships with his or her parents. The results are interpreted within the social-psychobiological model of hypnosis.

Keywords: Hypnosis, oxytocin, cortisol, hypnotic interaction

 

Maria Hagl

Efficacy research in the field of clinical hypnosis in the year 2014

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 113-125

A yearly literature search for newly published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating clinical hypnosis, as well as for respective meta-analyses is funded by the Milton Erickson Society of Clinical Hypnosis, Germany. In 2014, only three RCTs were found, which is less than in previous years. However, search results for currently ongoing studies do not indicate any decline in research activity. Meta-analyses published in 2014 support the efficacy of gutdirected hypnotherapy in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. In addition, several systematic reviews on the efficacy of hypnosis in supporting surgical or other medical procedures and in managing chronic pain were published, with small to moderate and mostly heterogeneous overall effect sizes. Apart from methodological problems in the underlying studies this might indicate differential treatment responses in patients; reporting responder analyses together with analysing possible moderators of treatment success would be useful in future research.

Keywords: Hypnosis, hypnotherapy, efficacy, effectiveness, psychotherapy research, randomized controlled trials, RCT

 

Ronja Stender, Anil Batra, and Björn Riegel

Individual explanations of former female smokers for their successful cessation with hypnosis in groups: A qualitative study

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 127-141

Regular smokers regard hypnosis as being an attractive aid in smoking cessation. While there is a growing body of literature on the evidence of hypnosis in smoking cessation little is known which elements are useful. Therefore, we aimed to assess subjective theories of former smokers concerning elements of successful smoking cessation with hypnosis. Based on the Grounded Theory, we analyzed five qualitative interviews with long-term abstinent female participants in a smoking cessation with hypnosis in groups. Four categories emerged (causal and contextual conditions, strategies and consequences) with further subcategories. These categories show the patients view on succesful treatment. Non-specific elements are a high intrinsic motivation and an intensive reflection of ones own addictive behaviour together with other ab- stinence seeking smokers. In addition, the content of hypnosis elements was internalized with- out being able to name it consciously. From a patients point of view, these elements are useful. A combination of behavioral approaches is discussed.

Keywords: smoking cessation, tobacco, addiction, hypnotherapy, hypnosis

 

Anke Precht

„Regulator down, flash forward!“ Regulation of physical and psychological tension by drive and determination: The Hypno-Coaching of a cross country MTB rider. A case study

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 143-151

A highly motivated, 21 year old MTB rider constantly performs below his best ability. In addition to bouts of insomnia and feeling under immense strain in the days before important races, he misses the necessary 'drive' to get in front. In 3 sessions totalling 5 hours of coaching, and with the help of hypnosis and the regular training of self-hypnosis, he learns to actively regulate his inner tension. By taking a step further and following the 'Zuericher Ressourcenmodell', he gains the determination needed to be successful in races. His results improve significantly and he manages to break into a professional team.

Keywords: Sports, MTB, hypnosis, hypnosis in sports, self hypnosis

 

Peter Drißl

Fear and success. A case study

Hypnose-ZHH 2015, 10 (1+2), 152-159

A 26-year-old professional female triathlete is suffering from anxiety, increasing to panic attacks, during steep bicycle slopes. The resulting loss of time comes with a stagnation of improvement. During anxiety management training she experiences helpful inner pictures and resources on the ergometer, under active-alert-hypnosis. She profitably learns to put them into practice in training and competition.

Keywords: psychoeducation, fear-management, active-alert hypnosis

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