Volume 8, Double-issue 1+2, October 2013, 240 pages

Of the journal Hypnose – Zeitschrift für Hypnose und Hypnotherapie (Hypnose-ZHH)

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Table of Contents

  • Marianne Martin, Lydia Yogev and Henriette Walter

    Women in the history of hypnosis: Searching for the sisters from yesterday ... and the day before yesterday ...

  • Consuelo Casula
    The strength of vulnerability. Challenges to becoming a mother

  • Katalin Varga, Emese Józsa and Zoltán Kekecs
    Hypnosis as a human interaction: The Gender composition of the hypnotic dyad

  • Maria Schnell
    The vanished Self. Hypnotherapeutic strategies to develop autonomy and confidence

  • Maria Hagl, Christoph Piesbergen, Christina Bose and Burkhard Peter
    Personality styles in female undergraduates who participate in hypnosis experiments vs. personality styles of practitioners of hypnosis or hypnotherapy

  • Nadine Fenn and Björn Riegel
    Efficacy of hypnotherapeutic group interventions. A systematic literature review

  • Francesca Scarpinato-Hirt, Armin Bauer, Christel Lüdecke and Hans Riebensahm
    Hypnotherapeutic approaches according to Milton H. Erickson in the treatment of addicts: Development of a group-therapeutic intervention in a clinical setting

  • Juana Schröter, Burkhard Peter and Mark Helle
    Sigmund Freud´s attitude towards hypnosis

  • Maria Hagl
    Efficacy of clinical hypnosis – Intervention studies from 2010 to 2012

  • Wolfram Dorrmann
    Hypnotherapy in preventing suicide: Hypnotherapeutic interview techniques with suicidal patients. Examples of hypnotherapeutic communication patterns

  • Paul Meyer
    "Only a little tingling left at abrupt changes of weather and full moon.” Imaginative Resonance Training (IRT) achieves elimination of amputee’s phantom pain – case report

 

Abstracts

Marianne Martin, Lydia Yogev and Henriette Walter

Women in the history of hypnosis: Searching for the sisters from yesterday ... and the day before yesterday ...

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 7-42

In numerous publications about the history of hypnosis we learn much about important men, their lives and performances beginning with the priests in the antiquity. Here, we investigate the question of whether in the history of hypnosis women were also remarkable. In our narrative we include reports of trance and hypnosis in the areas myth, religion, preparation for combat, healing, obstetrics, as well as in superstition. In the three sections antiquity, the Middle Ages and modern times we show the results of our searches. Some tracks led to dead ends, however we were delighted to find several papers concerning female “magnetists” and their working. Other interesting associated results of our search like the feared Yes-Set of a witch are provided. We see this work as a beginning to a valuable broadening to the history of hypnosis and suggest to colleagues, female and male, to continue this search.

Keywords: history of hypnosis, female hypnotists, female magnetists

Consuelo Casula

The strength of vulnerability. Challenges to becoming a mother

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 43-56

A combination of the “five petals of identity” model with some hypnotic techniques utilized in the treatment of four women is presented, each of whom had to face a difficult decision concerning the important topic of becoming a mother, and its correlation with motherhood, miscarriages, and infertility. This article will describe how hypnosis helped four women in dealing with their identity crisis connected with maternal instinct and maternal qualities. In particular how hypnosis helped them to transform their vulnerability related to conception and gestation into the strength of knowing and accepting their limits; to transform the fear of something bigger than their will into acceptance of the mystery of life and death. Four different women with four different pains, connected with their desire to become “integrated” mothers, came to therapy to find their true selves, to realize themselves, not only as women, wives and professionals, but also as mothers.

Keywords: infertility, maternal problems, resilience, identity's dimensions, hypnosis

Katalin Varga, Emese Józsa and Zoltán Kekecs

Hypnosis as a human interaction: The Gender composition of the hypnotic dyad

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 57-70

We re-analyzed the data of 92 standardized laboratory individual hypnosis sessions (SHSS:A) from a previous study which were performed by the same male or female hypnotist. Both filled in the Dyadic Interactional Harmony (DIH) questionnaire and the dyadic version of the Archaic Involvement Measure (AIM) after hypnosis. The comparison of the four gender combinations revealed that highest communion was experienced by the subjects in the female hypnotist-female subject dyads, and it was the lowest in male-male dyads. Furthermore the subjects felt the most tension in the female hypnotist-male subject pairs, while tension was lowest in the male hypnotist-female subject dyad. Hypnotists also report different levels of Intimacy, Playfulness, Tension, and Archaic involvement. Gender composition can be an im­portant aspect of the hypnosis interaction which can determine the experience of both participants of the hypnosis dyad. We encourage further research on relational aspects of hypnosis.

Keywords: hypnosis, gender, dyadic interaction

Maria Schnell

The vanished Self. Hypnotherapeutic strategies to develop autonomy and confidence

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 71-84

Selflessness and empathy are positive skills that enrich every relationship. "Being unselfish" as a basic social strategy can however lead to disregard feelings, needs and boundaries, the self "disappears". Subsequently symptoms or problems emerge on a different level. In this article unselfishness is examined in relation to femininity. The gender perspective is substantiated by a cultural-political dimension and two psychological approaches. The self is considered as basis for understanding elementary inner conflicts and contrasting feelings. After pre­senting a brief history of the concept self a systemic theory of the self is outlined. The self can psychotherapeutically be developed through supporting essential skills. In the practical section basic strategies to develop the "vanished self" are explained, using the example of the primal needs autonomy and trust. The hypnotherapeutic methods parts working and progression are described in an application-oriented way and illustrated by case studies.

Keywords: selflessness, gender, basic needs, inner parts, progression

Maria Hagl, Christoph Piesbergen, Christina Bose and Burkhard Peter

Personality styles in female undergraduates who participate in hypnosis experiments vs. personality styles of practitioners of hypnosis or hypnotherapy

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 87-102

Personality styles of 52 female undergraduates (psychology and educational sciences) who participated in hypnosis experiments were assessed using the Personality-Styles- and Dis­or­ders-Inventory (PSSI). These data were compared to the personality styles of 203 hypnosis prac­titioners (mainly psychologists, physicians and dentists) previously assessed in another study. The average personality profiles of both groups were within non-clinical ranges. Where­as practitioners often showed more extreme scores, students’ profiles were less pronounced. Overall, the profiles were more similar than different. Remarkable was a difference between the two groups concerning the scale “helpful-selfless” with students being rather helpful whereas practitioners had significantly lower scores than students and norms alike. Professional training and socialisation might explain this pronounced difference, although methodological shortcomings of the study hamper conclusions.

Keywords: Personality styles, PSSI, hypnosis, hypnotherapists, psychotherapists, psychology students

Nadine Fenn and Björn Riegel

Efficacy of hypnotherapeutic group interventions. A systematic literature review

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 103-118

Traditionally hypnotherapy is conducted in single sessions. However group treatment seems to be more useful and economic in different application fields. Therefore actual research findings concerning their efficacy are analysed in this systematic review. Publications from January 2000 to May 2012 are integrated in this review to exclusively involve articles which described modern hypnotherapeutic methods. Embase and Medline were used. Only publications in which changes could be assigned to the hypnotherapeutic group treatment were included in the analysis. Eight publications met the inclusion criteria. The hypnotherapeutic group treatment proved to be quite effective, whereas hypnosis conducted in single sessions showed to be even more effective. To allow a classification of hypnotherapeutic group treatment as “empirically supported therapy” (Chamb­less & Hollon, 1998) in the future, more methodically rigorous research is necessary.

Keywords: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, group therapy, hypnotherapeutic group treatment

Francesca Scarpinato-Hirt, Armin Bauer, Christel Lüdecke and Hans Riebensahm

Hypnotherapeutic approaches according to Milton H. Erickson in the treatment of addicts: Development of a group-therapeutic intervention in a clinical setting

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 119-130

In the treatment of addictions hypnotherapy has been accepted in March 2006 by the German Scientific Advisory Counsel of Psychotherapy. None the less its application on addicts still is a controversial issue in the literature; it is stated that hypnotherapy would enhance the tendency to evade treatment and to intensify the amotivational syndrome. In the Asklepios Fachklinikum Göttingen the question was posed, if these tendencies and the amotivational syndromes could be utilized for the treatment by integrating Ericksonian hypnotherapeutic approaches. In July 2009 a hypnotherapeutic group treatment has been developed and until February 2010 experimentally conducted. The approach aimed at the utilisation of these tendencies, thereby enabling and enhancing their therapy-motivation. According to the therapeutic results neither a reinforcement of the tendency to evade treatment nor the amotivational syndrome was found. The patients appeared relaxed and with a noticeable ego-strength. In many cases the encouragement of the therapy-motivation has been achieved significantly.

Key words: Group-hypnotherapy, addiction treatment, drug-addiction, polytoxicomania, Milton H. Erikson

Juana Schröter, Burkhard Peter and Mark Helle

Sigmund Freud´s attitude towards hypnosis

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 131-144

It is often assumed that Sigmund Freud’s criticism of hypnosis contributed to its arrest in development during the late 19th century, leading to its decreased therapeutic relevance. These claims are brought into question. Despite immense scepticism from his contemporaries, Freud became interested in hypnosis and started using it in his clinical practice. In the development of psychoanalysis he became less interested in hypnotic technique as a therapeutic intervention. Later he accepted and recognised it as a useful tool in addition to psychoanalytic technique. Although Freud found himself to be critical of hypnosis he was not entirely adverse to it. Once he had established psychoanalysis as an alternative form of therapy, he was able to value hypnosis in its own right. The article shows that Freud’s opinion of hypnosis has not always been correctly portrayed. His attitude towards hypnosis may serve as model for researchers and clinicians to re-evaluate their opinion about hypnosis.

Key words: hypnosis, Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis, therapeutic relation, hypnoanalysis

Maria Hagl

Efficacy of clinical hypnosis – Intervention studies from 2010 to 2012

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 145-182

Current meta-analyses and reviews of the efficacy of clinical hypnosis are reviewed, with a focus on mental disorders, before the intervention research of the last three years is portrayed, with a focus on randomized controlled trials. In a systematic literature research for the years 2010 to 2012, funded by the Milton Erickson Gesellschaft für Klinische Hypnose, 20 randomized or quasi-randomized trials were found, in which hypnosis was evaluated as stand-alone method or as an adjunct. As in the years before, trials from the fields of medicine and dentistry predominated. In some cases, inadequate reporting of research methods hampered the evaluation of results. To date, there is sufficient evidence that hypnosis is efficacious in pain management and in reducing distress associated with medical procedures, but evidence regarding the treatment of mental disorders is scarce. Methodological problems of psychotherapy research are being discussed in relation to hypnosis research, along with methodological alternatives and approaches to improve reporting.

Keywords: Hypnosis, hypnotherapy, efficacy, effectiveness, psychotherapy research, randomized controlled trials, RCT.

Wolfram Dorrmann

Hypnotherapy in preventing suicide: Hypnotherapeutic interview techniques with suicidal patients. Examples of hypnotherapeutic communication patterns

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 183-198

On the basis of current scientific knowledge of psychotherapeutic interactions common hypnotherapeutic communication patterns for psychotherapeutic interviews with suicidal patients are described. Specific techniques of relational design and concrete options for changing patient´s suicidal motives are presented.

Keywords: Suicide, psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, communication pattern

Paul Meyer

“Only a little tingling left at abrupt changes of weather and full moon.” Imaginative Resonance Training (IRT) achieves elimination of amputee’s phantom pain – case report

Hypnose-ZHH 2013, 8 (1+2), 199-211

Mr. T., aged 69 at the time of the treatment had his left leg torn off during a traffic accident 15 years previously. Phantom limb pain did not start immediately, but only two months later as a continuous pain in the non existing calf and sole with periodic peaks of extreme intensity. This proved to be resistant to a variety of therapies: mirror therapy, a “ limb position recognition program” etc and in the end was treated with daily doses of pain killers: latterly Pregabalin 75 mg in the morning and 150 mg in the evening to keep the patient functioning. In the course of the Imaginative Resonance Training (6 guided sessions from November 2007 until January 2008, in total 12 hours and exercises on his own between sessions), he was able to reduce this medication stepwise finally to zero. For the last five years he has been free of pain apart from, in his view, negligible tingling at abrupt changes of weather and full moon.

Keywords: Imaginative Resonance Training (IRT), Phantom limb pain, fMRI pre/post documentation

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