Volume 3, double-issue 1+2, October 2008, 176 Pages

of the journal Hypnose - Zeitschrift für Hypnose und Hypnotherapie (Hypnose-ZHH)

Table of Contents

  • Jochen Hefner and Herbert Csef
    Hypnotherapy as a treatment option for irritable bowel syndrom
  • Dirk Revenstorf and Wolfgang Weitzsäcker
    Concerning the structure of hypnoptic induction. A case of selfhealing accompanied by hypnosis
  • Cornelie Schweizer and Dirk Revenstorf
    Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Effectiveness in a one year follow-up
  • Katharina Wais and Dirk Revenstorf
    Meta-analysis on the effectiveness of hypnotherapy. Eleven Studies on different disorders
  • Dirk Lang and Dirk Revenstorf
    Study of effectiveness of hypnotherapy in clinical practice: Influence of imagination and diagnosis
  • Ilona Spitale, Dirk Revenstorf, Claudia Ammann, Christine Pundrich, Dirk Lang, Margit Koemeda-Lutz, Martin Kaschke, Thomas Scherrmann, Halko Weiss, and Ulrich Soeder
    Effectiveness of body psychotherapy compared to hypnotherapy
  • Corinna Pupke, Martin Hautzinger and Dirk Revenstorf
    Hypnotherapy and behavior therapy from a consumer perspective
  • Paul Janouch
    On the combination of hypnotherapeutic and behavior-therapeutic techniques with anxiety disorders. A case description
  • O. Berndt Scholz, Benjamin Bleek and Annette Schlien
    Suggestions which are designed to become effective after hypnosis: On the presentation of a posthypnotic-task - A brief communication
  • Burkhard Peter
    How hypnosis creates reality in the brain: On the role of hypnotic trance in psychotherapy
  • Hanne Seemann
    The organism is intelligent - most of all it likes to listen to images: A hypno-systemic sight of view on psychosomatic disorders

Abstracts & Download (German Originals)

Jochen Hefner and Herbert Csef, Universitätskliniken Tübingen und Würzburg

Hypnotherapy as a treatment option for irritable bowel syndrom
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 5-16

Background: The problem of irritable bowel syndrom (IBS) challenges the patient and the health care system alike. IBS is a common and costly disease which is difficult to treat. Modern imaging techniques allow new insights into the coherences of the topic. Aims: Current data concerning the epidemiology, ethiology and therapy are presented. Results: Within recent years, hypnotherapy evolved as an auspicious therapy option for IBS. It´s most valuable as an adjunct in cases which are refractory to general medical (i.e. pharmacological) treatment. Conclusion: Although still open questions concerning its mechanisms of action, hypnotherapy represents an effective an cost-efficient therapy approach for IBS.

Keywords: Irritable bowel syndrome, modern imaging techniques, hypnotherapy

Dirk Revenstorf and Wolfgang Weitzsäcker, Universität Tübingen

Concerning the structure of hypnoptic induction. A case of selfhealing accompanied by hypnosis
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 17-32

Theme: Hypnotherapy has the goal of healing psychological and somatic ailments on an overt level of processing common to other forms of therapy: elimination of pain, management of anxiety and enhancing of competence. Controversial, however, is the lacking transperancy of hypnotherapy in certain cases. It seems to contradict the principle of empowerment of the patient. Author's point of view: The advantage of using hypnosis, however, is the distraction of the conscious mind from a second level of information processing, which works undisturbed of critical evaluation by everyday logic. Conclusions: This makes possible to associate the symptom with other levels of experience as to change the significance an meaning of it.

Keywords: Hypnosis, hypnotherapy, rules of induction, tumor, psychosomatics

Cornelie Schweizer and Dirk Revenstorf, Universität Tübingen

Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Effectiveness in a one year follow-up
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 33-56

Purpose: Smoking causes considerable expenses for the health care system. Despite of numerous empirical studies demonstrating the effectiveness and economy of hypnosis in smoking cessation, the method is not well recognized in the clinical literature. The present naturalistic study is meant to underline the usefulness of hypnotherapy in this health area. Methodology: three quasi-experiments are compiled in this article: an hypnotic group treatment, individual hypnotherapy and a minimal instructional group, comprising 149 patients. Results: follow-ups of three and 12 month resulted in 65% and 45 % abstinence rates compared to 22% and 16% abstinenc in the minimal nonhypnotic treatment. Group hypnosis was more effective than individual treatment. Positive influence on the result of treatment had: psychological stability, suggestibility and the endurance of abstaining for two days and renouncing the use of nicotine substitutes. The management of anger (in and out) appears to play an important role in smoking cessation. Conclusions: smoking cessation with hypnosis can be very successful, economical and lasting, since it may be conducted in 3-5 session and in a groups setting. Success appears to be independent of demografic variables and smoking history of the individual.

Keywords: smoking cessation, hypnotherapy, grouptherapy, 12-month follow-up, suggestibility, anger management

Katharina Wais and Dirk Revenstorf, Universität Tübingen

Meta-analysis on the effectiveness of hypnotherapy. Eleven Studies on different disorders.
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 57-68

Study purpose: Adult patients with various clinically significant ailments were treated with hypnotherapy and compared to either a waiting list or behavior therapy controls. Methodology: This metaanalysis summarizes 11 studies in the areas of overweight, migraine, primary insomnia, flight fear, exam anxiety and smoking cessation. To evaluate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy, the primary studies were grouped into four intervention classes (hypnotherapy, behavior therapy, combined therapy and control). Long term effects were assessed from follow-ups of different lengths. Randomized control trials were analyzed by Anova designs with post and follow-up measurements of treatment success. Results and conclusions: Significant improvements were shown for all three forms of treatment – pre-post and follow-up. While the cognitive behavior therapy showed consistently middle range effect sizes, an increase of the effect size from middle to large at the time of follow-up was shown for hypnotherapy alone. Combined programs with hypnotic and behavioral elements resulted in best effectiveness with large effect sizes for both, pre-post and follow-up.

Keywords: hypnotherapy, overweight, migraine, insomnia, flight anxiety, test anxiety, smoking cessation

Dirk Lang and Dirk Revenstorf, Universität Tübingen

Study of effectiveness of hypnotherapy in clinical practice: Influence of imagination and diagnosis
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 69-84

Purpose: In a clinical effectiveness study specific influencing factors on successful therapy in hypnosis have been analyzed. Methodology: The sample consisted of 49 patients who have been evaluated within a pre-/post design. Results: Constant significant improvements concerning somatic and psychic symptoms, anxiety, depression as well as self-efficacy and life satisfaction were found. The analysis of drop-outs showed that patients who abstained from completing therapy before second or third testing didn't differ significantly from those who stayed in this study. Regarding the hypnotic intervention techniques no significant differences were found neither between diagnostic groups nor between high and low imagination. Finally, no significant differences were found between the diagnostic groups concerning the duration of therapy.

Keywords: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, effectiveness study, imagination

Ilona Spitale, Dirk Revenstorf, Claudia Ammann, Christine Pundrich, Dirk Lang, Margit Koemeda-Lutz, Martin Kaschke, Thomas Scherrmann, Halko Weiss, and Ulrich Soeder, Universität Tübingen

Effectiveness of body psychotherapy compared to hypnotherapy
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 85-98

Purpose: Comparing body psychotherapy (KT) with hypnotherapy (HT). Methodology: In a clinical effectiveness study the gain with respect symptom severity (SCL-90), life quality and interpersonal problems in 161 body psychotherapy (KT) patients was compared to that in 49 hypnotherapy (HT) patients. Results: Both therapy forms produced significant ameliorations of the same size in the studied groups.

Keywords: body psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, effectiveness

Corinna Pupke, Martin Hautzinger and Dirk Revenstorf, Universität Tübingen

Hypnotherapy and behavior therapy from a consumer perspective
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 99-110

Purpose: Due to the increasing impact of the patient’s point of view within the health care policy and research as well as the higher establishment of hypnotherapy in the landscape of psychotherapy the interest regarding hypnotherapy should be measured.  Methodology: For this purpose a specially designed questionnaire was applied to analyze exploratively the patients’ specific characteristics being treated with hypnotherapy and their attending therapists while the control group consisted of behaviour therapists and their patients. In doing so the examining factor was the patients’ therapy preference. Results:  Contrary to the assumptions only a few noticable differences could be found between the two groups. Only the patients’ expectations of the therapy turned out to be different – particularly concerning those showing a clear therapy preference. Furthermore it could be demonstrated that patients prefering hypnosis were treated because of different disorders compared to patients prefering behavioural therapy. Additionally, a survey of the members of the professional associations of clinical hypnosis (MEG & DGH) should examine how many patients were treated with hypnosis within one year and how many of them explicitly wanted to be treated with hypnosis on demand. It could be shown that hypnotherapists treated almost half of their patients with hypnosis and that a big group of patients exists actively asking for hypnosis.

Keywords: Hypnotherapy, behavior therapy, patient´s perspective

Paul Janouch, Bad Salzuflen

On the combination of hypnotherapeutic and behavior-therapeutic techniques with anxiety disorders. A case description
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 111-116

Purpose: Hypno- and behavior-therapeutic techniques can be easily combined. Description: This is shown by a case example of an anxiety patient. Conclusions: 1. Hypnotherapeutic exploration can support behavior-therapeutic diagnostic. 2. Possible therapeutic solutions can be best imagined under hypnotic trance. 3. Behavior-therapeutic expositions might be necessary if avoidance behavior is dominant. 4. Hypnotherapeutic techniques can optimize cognitive reconstructions.

Keywords: Hypnotherapy, behavior therapy, anxiety disorder

O. Berndt Scholz, Benjamin Bleek and Annette Schlien, Universität Bonn

Suggestions which are designed to become effective after hypnosis: On the presentation of a posthypnotic-task - A brief communication
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 117-126

Theme: Although posthypnotic suggestions constitute an important part of hypnotherapeutic interventions, their impact is yet to be examined and understood. Development of the theme: In this short overview, the term “posthypnotic suggestion” is renamed “posthypnotic-task” in order to avoid conceptual misunderstandings. Next, the characteristic features of an effective posthypnotic-task are elucidated, followed by a discussion on how best to formulate a posthypnotic-task. A survey of the literature on the duration and effectiveness of posthypnotic-tasks shows that adequate research regarding the intermediate and long-term effects of posthypnotic-tasks is lacking. Author´s point of view: A new wording algorithm is offered, which should facilitate the construction of an effective posthypnotic-task. Conclusions: So as to account for both the impact and efficacy of posthypnotic-tasks,  the latter will be placed in the context of contemporary developments in the neurosciences and cognitive sciences. (Anthony Kauders)

Keywords: posthypnotic-task, time of effectiveness, application, wording, posthypnotic suggestion

Burkhard Peter, München

How hypnosis creates reality in the brain: On the role of hypnotic trance in psychotherapy
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 127-148

Thesis: Through hypnotic trance and with the help of hypnotic phenomena a patient is led to an “alternative reality”, in which he or she learns to feel, think, and behave differently than in the earlier “normal” neurotic or psychosomatic state. The more the patient experiences this “alternative reality” as being convincing and true to life, the more likely it is that he or she will accept what has been learned as a part of normal life. Exposition: The effectiveness of hypnosis and hypnotherapy has been proved in several fields of psychotherapy. An attempt will be made to explain this effectiveness. In this connection four theses will be discussed and illustrated with relevant data from neurosciences. (1) Hypnotic trance is essential to experiencing an “alternative reality”; (2) involuntariness is important to induce the feeling that one is hypnotized; (3) hypnotic phenomena are similar to psychopathological symptoms the difference between the two, however, is crucial; (4) hypnotic trance in psychotherapy is indicated when the degree of involuntariness in the symptomatology is high. Author´s point of view:  New data from neuroscience, that is, respective PET- und fMRI-research on brain activity during hypnotic trance support these findings. Conclusions: The consequences for the application of hypnotic trance in psychotherapeutic  practice are discussed. The role of hypnosis is emphasized. (Anthony Kauders)

Keywords: Hypnosis, hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, neuroscience, PET, FMRI

Hanne Seemann, Universität Heidelberg

The organism is intelligent - most of all it likes to listen to images: A hypno-systemic sight of view on psychosomatic disorders
Hypnose-ZHH, 2008, 3(1+2), 149-162

Thesis: In this contribution we postulate the organism having and needing a self-regulating intelligence of its own in order to maintain its well arranged functioning. Exposition: There are two components of this intelligence: on the one hand the competences to perceive and to recognize deviance and disturbances of the system, and on the other hand the competences to counter-regulation, to maintain and to re-establish the individual order of the system. Disorders come from the internal as well as from the external sphere wherein also the cognitive system might possibly be involved. Author’s point of view: The organism is described as an image-generating system which is most easily demonstrated under conditions of disorders. For this we will give examples of psychosomatic disorders such as the aura of migraine. At the same time the organism is starting its own world of images while being in a trance and he can be treated by healing images. Conclusions: In treating psychosomatic disorders it is the therapist’s task to help the patient with recognizing and finding (again) his “good Gestalt” behind the disturbed image of himself that he is bringing into therapy. (A. Iost-Peter)

Keywords: Psychosomatics, self-organization, migraine, trance, images