Volume 4, double-issue 1+2, October 2009, 272 Pages

of the journal Hypnose - Zeitschrift für Hypnose und Hypnotherapie (Hypnose-ZHH)

Table of Contents

  • Horst-Eberhard Richter
    Flexibility or parenthood? Where is the family going?
  • Hans-Jürgen Wirth
    Narcissism, power and paranoia. Reflections on terrorism, war and death
  • Christan Felber
    New Values for the Economy
  • Burkhard Peter
    The history of the concept of the Unconscious in Hypnosis and Psychoanalysis
  • Léon Chertok
    The discovery of the transference
  • J.Philip Zindel
    Hypnosis - a very special therapeutic relationship
  • Matthias Mende
    The utilization of transference and countertransference in the solution oriented hypnotherapy
  • Hans Kanitschar
    Hypnopsychotherapy, an integrative psychodynamic approach
  • J.Philip Zindel
    Overview on hypnoanalysis
  • Klaus-D. Hüllemann
    Psychodynamic therapy and hypnotherapy: Empathy, thinking, support
  • Luise Reddemann
    Ego state therapy, a link between psychoanalysis und hypnotherapy
  • Harald Ullmann
    Katathymic Imaginative Psychotherapy (KIP) as a psychodynamic-oriented therapeutic process with a hypnotherapeutic background
  • O. Berndt Scholz
    Pathography as a paradigm in Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy – examples from the pictorial arts and poetry.
    The Heidelberger Hypnoseprocess 1936. “Eine Frau sieben Jahre unter hypnotischem Einfluß. Eine schamlose Ausbeutung vor der Aufklärung?” Part 1

Abstracts & Download (German Originals)

Horst-Eberhard Richter, Universität Gießen

Flexibility or parenthood? Where is the family going?
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 5-12

Proposition: The slogan “flexibility” idealizes the willingness to be manoeuvrable that is highly welcome in an economic situation characterized by insecurities and constant flux. It is, however, harmful to the development of stability of character and the establishment of secure attachments in partnership and the education of children.

Author ́s view and conclusions: A progressive humanization of our culture requires a critical revision of the concepts masculinity and femininity as we progress towards a new kind of parenthood. (Chr. Kraiker)

Keywords: Flexibility, Character, Feminity, Manhood

Hans-Jürgen Wirth, Universität Gießen

Narcissism, power and paranoia. Reflections on terrorism, war and death
Hypnose-ZHH
, 2009, 4(1+2), 13-35

Theme: Narcissistically disturbed people seek power in order to compensate for their inadequate self-esteem. Conversely, the possibility to exercise power fuels fantasies of grandeur and omnipotence.

Development of the theme: Power is like a drug: Self-doubt evaporates, self-consciousness increases. Fantasies of grandeur often serve to overcome insufferable feelings of impotence. The collective identity of large groups is also often characterised by a blend of fantasies of power, impotence and grandeur and of narcissistic offence. Collective trauma and the associated feeling of impotence and narcissistic offence are often acted out in collective demonstrations of power. Wars but also terrorism can be understood as such. The interacting parties, e.g. terrorists or states who are »at war against terror«, frequently dovetail into a fight of power and impotence which can be described, from a relations point of view, as a narcissistic collusion (Jürg Willi).

Implications: Diplomatic initiatives to resolve conflicts need to take into consideration a psychodynamic context of this kind.

Keywords: Power, impotence, narcissism, narcissistic personality disorder, politics, terrorism

Christian Felber, Wien

New Values for the Economy
Hypnose-ZHH
, 2009, 4(1+2), 37-48

Thesis: The values, on which the present economic system is based upon, stand in sharp contradiction to the basic values of most people’s daily life.

Development: The “free” market promotes egoism, greed, avarice, and irresponsibility. On the contrary, human relations work well if people cooperate, live solidarity, appreciate each other, build trust, and are compassionate. This radical contradiction of values divides us as persons and the society as a whole. The present economic system undermines the basic values of a humanistic society. Trust and security are destroyed systemically.

Conclusion: We therefore should “ethically harmonize” these two spheres. This could be done by changing the rules and institutions of economic policy in order that they don’t promote egoism and “counterpetition” like nowadays but on the contrary the strive for the common welfare and cooperation. Single economic actors should not be obliged to strive for financial profit “counterpeting” each other but to strive for the common welfare and be incited to cooperate. Enterprises that practice social responsibility, ecological sustainability, democracy, and solidarity should be rewarded legally, what would turn the market into a really “free” one. The consequence would be that the economic systems’ fundamental values are consistent with humanistic values of every day’s life: values that allow social and ecological relationships to flourish.

Keywords: Values, market economy, capitalism, competition, cooperation, for-profit-orientation, success, social responsibility, sustainability, democracy, law

Burkhard Peter, München

The history of the concept of the Unconscious in Hypnosis and Psychoanalysis
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 49-78

Background: In the last century the concept of the unconscious underwent several changes of meaning due to the competing influences of hypnosis and psychoanalysis.

Proposition: The rejection of hypnoses, initiated by Sigmund Freud more than a hundred years ago, is still accepted, with the exception of a few unorthodox psychoanalysts that have taken up hypnosis. An explanation for this is offered in Part I of this paper, based on the opposing interpretations of the meaning of the Unconscious in hypnosis and psychoanalysis. The change of meaning in time is described. When the concept of the unconscious was introduced at the beginning of the 19th century it still had positive connotations derived from the idea of “animal magnetism” dear to early romanticism. In the course of the 19th century it experienced a change for the worse, due to the writings of Nietzsche and Schopenhauer , and was in this condition taken up by Sigmund Freud and used for the construction of his “mental apparatus”. At the end of the 20th century Milton H. Erickson was responsible for another change in meaning: The concept of the unconscious is used in modern hypnotherapy in the sense of a positive resource.

Conclusion: The unconscious in psychotherapy is a conceptual construct whose interpretation has decisive consequences for the way theoretical and practical work is done, as can be seen looking at the differences between hypnosis and psychoanalysis. (Chr. Kraiker)

Keywords: Unconscious, hypnosis, psychoanalysis, animal magnetism, Sigmund Freud, sexuality, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Milton H. Erickson.

Léon Chertok

The discovery of the transference
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 79-106

Background: The precise date and the circumstances of the discovery of the transference by Sigmund Freud have not yet been clearly determined. An attempt is made to throw light upon the problem by examining the unconscious motivations which may have been operative in this discovery, by putting the discovery back into historical perspective, and by making use of the available biographical data concerning Freud. From the inception, in the late eighteenth century, of the experimental study of the psychotherapeutic relationship, the interest of the investigators had been aroused by the erotic complications which were liable to arise between the physician and his female patients. As a result, the writers of the nineteenth century had shown a strong resistance to interpersonal involvement, as also to the study of any affective relationship whatsoever between therapist and patient.

Author ́s point of view: Breuer, the victim of an incident of erotic character in the course of treatment, had fled before the danger and abandoned his research on hysteria in general. Freud, placed in a similar predicament, confronted the situation. He found a method of defence, which consisted in the belief that the patient was establishing a “false connection”, and that her emotional demands were not directed to him personally, but some person belonging to the patient`s more remote past. It is thus that his concern for this own protection led him to a most productive discovery – that of the transference.

Conclusion: This interpretation of his patient`s feeling was in fact quite possibly erroneous: to his day, we are still lacking in the reliable criteria which would enable us to distinguish between “genuine love” and “transference love”; but it none the less put Freud on the right track, through a paradoxical process, of which, moreover, other examples are to be found in the history of science.

Keywords: Hypnosis, erotic complications, defense, transference, Freud, Breuer

J.Philip Zindel, Binningen

Hypnosis - a very special therapeutic relationship
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 107-125

Theme: The relationship between the patient in trance and his therapist – the hypnotic relationship – is an extraordinary form of therapeutic relationship. Often it represents the main, in some cases an even irreplaceable therapeutic factor.

Logical development of the theme: The hypnotic relationship is, in its essence, an abstinent, symbiotic relationship which resembles closely the mother-child-constellation. Basically the induction is a form of ritual which aims at establishing this particularly intense closeness. In particular with severe disorders it is effective as a reparative relationship. Furthermore the transference with its set of problems fades away the deeper the trance develops.

Author’s point of view: Starting from the hypnotic work with psychotic and early traumatized patients we could observe that in many therapeutic situations the construction of a positive, therapeutic symbiosis is of much greater importance than the use of hypnotic phenomena or strategies.

Conclusions: The hypnotic relationship has to satisfy the general criteria of a therapeutic relationship, but moreover it contains particular potentials, which will be exposed in a practical way.

Keywords: Rapport, hypnotic relationship, therapeutic relationship, hypnotic induction, transference, intralocution, asymmetry, regression, abstinence, mother-child-constellation, reassociation

Matthias Mende, Salzburg

The utilization of transference and countertransference in the solution oriented hypnotherapy
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 127-152

Theme: In hypnosis, transference/countertransference is ubiquitous and especially intensive. Consequently, it makes sense to become aware of these interactional phenomena not only in psychodynamic approaches but also in solution oriented Ericksonian hypnotherapy and to utilize them for the development of trances and facilitation of therapeutic progress.

Development of the theme: It is shown why transference and countertransference will develop fast and intensively especially in hypnosis. Hypnotic transference/countertransference is defined operationally and the effects they have on the hypnotic relationship are examined. Subsequently, the utilization of the unconscious mind as transference-object is described. The description of options for utilizing transference and countertransference hypnotherapeutically includes some case vignettes. The utilization of expectancies regarding hypnosis, mother- and father-transferences and of transferential attitudes existing in combination with certain character structures are explored in more detail. Finally, ways of utilizing positive and negative countertransference for diagnostics and for mastering difficult therapy phases are described.

Conclusion: Becoming aware of transference/countertransference and utilizing these interactional phenomena offers a useful option for raising the quality the therapeutic relationship in terms of goal achievement, also in Ericksonian hypnotherapy.

Keywords: Transference, countertransference, rapport, utilization, unconscious mind, Ericksonian hypnotherapy

Hans Kanitschar, Wien

Hypnopsychotherapy, an integrative psychodynamic approach
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 153-175

Theme: Overview concerning the integrative, psychodynamic based hypnopsychotherapy which is taught by the Austrian Society for Applied Psychodynamics and General Psychotherapy. This modality comprehends hypnoanalytic, ericksonian, behavioral and systemic approaches. The underlying human image is oriented on depth psychological findings as well as on anthropological presumptions of Milton H. Erickson.

Development of the theme: By means of a depth psychological frame-model which is based on theoretical presumptions of Erika Fromm, four steps of structural integration of human personality are presented. An attempt is made to put together the theory of egostates of John and Helen Watkins with those four steps of integration. For therapy planning, three modes of hypnotherapeutic interventions are presented: (1) the mode of ego-strengthening, resources and practising, (2) the mode of working on conflicts and corrective emotional experience, (3) the future and solution oriented mode of intervention. Utilizing the four-step-model of integration it is possible to name hypnotherapeutic abilities for each step and to relate them to the three modes of intervention. This allows specific conclusions for therapy planning and a fine adjustment of hypnotherapeutic strategies and techniques.

Conclusions: The integration of various hypnotherapeutic approaches based on psychodynamics is a way to integrate different indications of hypnotherapy in one modality.

Keywords: Integrative hypnopsychotherapy, psychodynamics, Ericksonian conception of man, steps of personality integration, modes of intervention, therapy planning

J.Philip Zindel, Binningen

Overview on hypnoanalysis
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 177-188

Theme: Hypnoanalysis consists of various possibilities of combining psychoanalytic thinking with hypnotherapeutic interventions.

Development of the theme: Hypnoanalysis doesn’t represent an independent and consistent therapeutic system. It is rather a very heterogenic term developed from various views and weightings of its two components, hypnosis and psychoanalysis. There is a very wide range of possible combinations which all can be used in an effective therapeutic way. So, e.g., hypnosis can be introduced into a psychoanalytic treatment in order to simplify and to enrich it. In the extreme case we can find a true hypnotic work, which is conceived in an analytic understanding. In any case a central topic is that one has to take into consideration the nature of the hypnotic relationship as an abstinent, therapeutic symbiosis. A brief vignette illustrates one of the possibilities of application.

Author’s point of view: An up to date examination of the hypnotic processes within a psychoanalytic vision not only allows a flexible integration of hypnotic interventions within the frame of psychodynamic reflection but it literally invites to do so. At the same time psychodynamic thinking can help to avoid pitfalls of a pure hypnotherapeutic work.

Conclusions: Hypnosis and psychoanalysis can enhance each other without creating disturbances if applied consciously and in a well-founded way. A necessary condition is in any case a serious training in both disciplines.

Keywords: Hypnoanalysis, hypnotic relationship, symbiotic relationship, transference; suggestion

Klaus-D. Hüllemann, Universität München

Psychodynamic therapy and hypnotherapy: Empathy, thinking, support
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 189-206

Background: In Germany one variant of psychoanalysis is called psychodynamic therapy which has a more direct approach to practical issues. This kind of psychotherapy is the one most frequently paid for by the public health insurance system. Psychodynamic therapy focuses on the past and on current deficiencies, using warlike metaphors. The therapist must be aware not only of what the patient communicates to him but also of what and how he communicates to the patient. Psychodynamic therapy helps the patient to better understand some of his most profound psychological problems. This kind of approach for instance has also been useful in the context of forensic psychology. Hypnotherapy focuses on the future, on resources and professional human relationship. The training in hypnotic techniques enables the therapist to use these techniques in more responsible ways and to control the effects in a warmhearted atmosphere on an equal level. This is mindful communication.

Development of the theme: The author describes his experiences with teachers of psychotherapy, with psychotherapeutic expert opinion and the problem of transfer into practical work.

Author ́s point of view: Psychodynamic therapy is recognized as the health insurance companies ́ favorite kind of psychotherapy for psychosomatic and neurotic disorders. The therapist ́s flexibility can compensate for its limitations. The focus on deficiencies, however, is harmful to the process of communication. I prefer hypnotherapy because it focuses on resources. The essence of my point of view is a kind of onion skin model, more precisely a bio-psychosocial model, considering mankind as having spiritual capabilities and a need for transcendence.

Conclusions: Psychodynamic psychotherapy can enrich hypnotherapy and vice versa and both can profit by including systemic aspects. To put psychodynamic and hypno-systemic therapy to practice means: to better understand the patient (psychodynamic), to think more profoundly about the patient and his environment (systemic) and to help the patient out of his illness more effectively (hypnotherapeutic and suggestive intervention). (Chr. Kraiker)

Keywords: psychodynamic psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, training in psychoanalysis, communication, metaphors, resources, utilization

Luise Reddemann, Universität Klagenfurt

Ego state therapy, a link between psychoanalysis und hypnotherapy
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 207-214

Background: Ego state therapy, psychoanalysis and hypnotherapy can be seen as completing and enriching each other.

Development of the theme: It is shown that the ego state model can therapeutically be applied in a way, that both psychoanalytical concepts of transference and hypnotherapeutic-suggestive elements may be used.

Author ́s point of view: The author suggests that especially when treating traumatised patients the ego state model seems to clinically ensure more safety as it allows the “adult ego“ a wider scope of competence and helps the states to satisfy their needs through imagination.

Conclusion: For this reason the ego state model is highly recommended when patients with posttraumatic problems are treated. Further research in this field should be done. (C. Kraiker)

Keywords: psychoanalysis, hypnotherapy, ego state therapy, trauma-therapy

Harald Ullmann, Karlsruhe

Katathymic Imaginative Psychotherapy (KIP) as a psychodynamic-oriented therapeutic process with a hypnotherapeutic background
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 215-236

Subject: Katathymic Imaginative Psychotherapy (KIP) - in English terminology generally known as “Guided Affective Imagery" (GAI) - is presented here together with its individual components as a psychoanalytically-based therapeutic process.

Explanation: At the heart of KIP is the imagination, borne of emotions, symbolically intensified, and accompanied by dialogue. In addition to psychodynamic aspects, hypnotic elements also play a role and have indeed done so since the beginnings of KIP as an experimental method.

Viewpoint and conclusions of author: The hypnotic, or rather hypnotherapeutic elements should be taken into account in the further development of theory and practice. New impulses and additional arguments from the area of neuroscience can be anticipated in the future, favouring the development of a multi-disciplinary, integral methodology and psychotherapeutic treatment directed towards the needs of a single individual.

Keywords: Katathymic imaginative psychotherapy, psychotherapy and the daydream, hypnotherapy, dialogue-accompanied imagination, accompanied daydream, symbol, interactive image, episode activation, psychodynamics, opposition, resistance

O. Berndt Scholz, Universität Bonn

Pathography as a paradigm in Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy – examples from the pictorial arts and poetry.
Hypnose-ZHH, 2009, 4(1+2), 237-251

Proposition: This essay describes a method that has been used in psychopathological research at least since the 19th century – pathography. At first its modes of application, epistemological potential and limitations are outlined. This is illustrated by two examples from the area of pictorial arts.

Elaboration of the proposition and the author ́s point of view: As a representative for the art of painting Albrecht Dürer was selected. Regarding his biography and many of his works we find strong evidence that Dürer may have suffered from a generalized anxiety syndrome. As a representative for the art of writing Rainer Maria Rilke was selected. Regarding his biography and poetry we find two great motifs in his life: the longing for belongingness and love – both in a transcendental sense. Starting from there we look for appropriate therapeutic strategies. Therapy in trance might be helpful in similar cases.

Conclusion: Finally some observations on the necessity of art for our well being and productivity are offered.

Keywords: pathography, Albrecht Dürer, Rainer Maria Rilke

The Heidelberg Hypnosis Trial 1936

A woman under hypnotic influence for seven years.  A case of ruthless exploitation being discovered? Part 1

 

 

Hypnose-ZHH 2009, 4(1+2), 269-272

 

 

From May 23 till June 15, 1936, a spectacular trial took place in Heidelberg. Two men were accused of having used hypnosis for seven years to ruthlessly exploit a married woman for their purposes. In this trial, the physician Ludwig Mayer was a key figure. He had extensively described his contribution to the  “discovery” in his book “Das Verbrechen in Hypnose und sei­­ne Aufklärung”. (Munich: Lehmanns 1937). To Ursula and Norbert Lebert we owe the copies of the ongoing reports on the trial, taken from  the newspaper “Hei­delberger Neueste Nachrichten”, which we will publish in this and the following issues.

Although the copyright has expired, we tried to get an explicit permission for this reprint.  This turned out to be impossible, because the “Heidelberger Neueste  Nachrichten” was taken over during the Nazi period by “Volksgemeinschaft:Heidelberger Beobachter”,  a paper that somehow disappeared in 1944 and was finally liquidated after the war without any successor.

The reprint will take place in sequels, and after the last issue a scientific comment will be added.